Cleaner Production

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Cleaner Production

Text of Cleaner Production

  • The Environmental Management Book SeriesEnvironmental issues are becoming increasingly important in all parts of society. Up till now good

    educational material has largely been lacking. The present Baltic University series of books, and

    other material connected to them, support master level training in environmental management in

    higher education. The books can be used for all relevant university level educational programmes,

    although they are especially suitable for engineering programmes.

    The series is the result of a cooperation between specialists at universities and practicians

    in the Baltic Sea region: Sweden, Denmark, Germany, Poland, Lithuania, Belarus as well as the

    Netherlands. The material consists of books with theoretical backgrounds and CDs with films,

    cases, practical exercises, tools, and databases. It covers four courses in environmental management.

    A web support to the courses offers teachers guides and student group works, as well as updated

    links and other material.

    Cleaner Production Technologies and Tools for Resource Efficient ProductionCleaner Production refers to manufacturing practices in which pollution is reduced at the source

    or at best does not appear at all. This is achieved by improved and precise methods for

    renewable energy management, materials recycling, chemical pathways and use of products.

    Throughout this book and on the accompanying CD the practices and strategies introduced

    are detailed and exemplified, both on a managerial and a technological level. It is clear that

    techniques with a focus on Cleaner Production are realistic, highly profitable, and sometimes

    legally required. They constitute an important part of a future sustainable society.

    Cleaner ProductionTechnologies and Tools for

    Resource Efficient Production

    Book 2 in a series on Environmental Management

    Lennart Nilsson, Per Olof Persson Lars Rydn, Siarhei Darozhka and Audrone Zaliauskiene

    Cleaner Production Technologies and Tools for Resource Efficient Production

    Book 2

    The Baltic University ProgrammeThe BUP is a cooperation between 180 universities in 14 countries in the Baltic Sea region, coordinated by Uppsala University, Sweden. The Programme develops interdisciplinary education on sustainable development and environmental science throughout the Baltic Sea region. It also works with applied projects in cooperation with governmental authorities, local administration and business, as well as with research and information. www.balticuniv.uu.se

    ISBN 978-91-975526-1-5

    9 789197 552615

  • The Baltic University

    Environmental Managementbook series

    1. Environmental Policy Legal and Economic Instruments

    2. Cleaner Production Technologies and Tools for Resource Efficient Production

    3. Product Design and Life Cycle Assessment

    4. Environmental Management Systems and Certification

  • Cleaner Production Technologies and Tools for

    Resource Efficient Production

    Book 2 in a series on Environmental Management

    main authors Lennart Nilsson, Per Olof Persson

    Lars Rydn, Siarhei Darozhka and Audrone Zaliauskiene

  • Cleaner ProductionTechnologies and Tools for Resource Efficient Production

    Main AuthorsLennart NilsonDept. of Industrial EcologySchool of Energy and Environmental Technology Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden

    Per Olof PerssonDept. of Industrial EcologySchool of Energy and Environmental Technology Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden

    Lars RydnBaltic University Programme, Uppsala Centre for Sustainable Development, Uppsala University, Sweden

    Siarhei DarozhkaDept. of EcologyBelarusian National Technical University, Minsk, Belarus

    Audrone ZaliauskieneDept. of Environmental EngineeringKaunas University of Technology, Kaunas, Lithuania

    Case Studies by:Tomas Pivoras and aneta Stasikien, APINI Kaunas University of Technology, LithuaniaGreen Chem Project, Lund University, SwedenOlga Sergienko and Sergey Esaulov, St. Petersburg State University of Refrigeration and Food Engineering, RussiaLennart Nilson, Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden

    Project Leader and Series EditorLars RydnBaltic University Programme, Uppsala Centre for Sustainable Development, Uppsala University, Sweden

    English EditorDonald MacQueenDepartment of English Uppsala University, Sweden

    Production Manager/Graphic DesignNicky TuckerBaltic University Programme, Uppsala Centre for Sustainable Development, Uppsala University, Sweden

    Film and CD ProductionMagnus LehmanBaltic University Programme, Uppsala Centre for Sustainable Development, Uppsala University, Sweden

    The Baltic University Press 2007Printed by Nina Tryckeri, Uppsala 2007.ISBN 91-975526-1-5

    FinancingThe Baltic University environmental management project was made possible through a grant from the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (SIDA), financing the production of the four books in the series, the four CDs with films and other materials, as well as several conferences.http://www.sida.se

    Environmental book productionThis book is printed on Arctic the Volume paper from Arctic Paper. This paper is Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) certified, i.e. the wood (mixed sources) used in the production comes from forests independently inspected and evaluated according to the sustain-ability principles and criteria approved by FSC.

    The Arctic Paper Hfrestrms AB mill, which produces the paper, is certified in accordance with the ISO 14001 standard, report their work in accordance with EMAS and are also accredited with the ISO 9001 quality management standard.http://www.arcticpaper.comhttp://www.fsc.org

    All four books in the Baltic University environmental management series are printed by Nina Tryckeri (Nina Printhouse), Uppsala, Sweden. Nina Printhouse introduced an environmental management system and became certified in accordance with the ISO 14001 standard in December 2005 as part of the preparation for the production of these books. The process is described on page 251 in Book 4, Environmental Management Systems and Certification, in this series, and in a film on the CD of that book.http://www.ninatryckeri.se

    Introduce your own environmental management systemUsers of the books are encouraged to introduce at least a simple environmental management system as part of their education. A short instruction for how to do this is available on the Baltic University website: http://www.balticuniv.uu.se/courses/em/

  • Preface ........................................................................................................................................................................ 17

    Introduction Cleaner Production ................................................................................................................. 19

    1 Industrial Impacts on the Environment .................................................................................................... 27

    2 Development of Pollution Abatement Methods ................................................................................... 47

    3 Industry in the Baltic Sea Region ................................................................................................................. 59

    4 Cleaner Production Assessment ................................................................................................................... 71

    5 Tracking Environmental Performance ....................................................................................................... 87

    6 Energy Conservation ......................................................................................................................................... 97

    7 Water Conservation ......................................................................................................................................... 113

    8 Water Pollution Reduction ........................................................................................................................... 121

    9 Air Pollution Reduction .................................................................................................................................. 135

    10 Waste Reduction ............................................................................................................................................. 145

    11 Green Engineering ........................................................................................................................................ 155

    12 Green Chemistry ............................................................................................................................................. 165

    13 Promoting Cleaner Production ................................................................................................................ 179

    References ............................................................................................................................................................... 193

    Summary of Contents

  • A Cleaner Production Practices 199

    1 Dairy Industry ....................................................................................................................................................... 205

    2 Pulp and Paper Industry ........................................................................................................................................ 211

    3 Textile Industry ..................................................................................................................................................... 219

    4 G