Clinical Lab Skills Assignment 2

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    1 Running head: SKILLS LAB 2

    Clinical Lab Skills Assignment 2

    Erin D. Flanders

    Winston Salem State University

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    SKILLS LAB ASSIGNMENT 2

    Unit II: Promoting and Maintaining Physiological and Psychosocial Integrity

    Prior to this lab session, students will submit a typed response to the posted questions

    1. List the normal ranges for each vital sign.

    Age Temperature () Pulse

    (beats/min)

    Respirations

    (breaths/min)

    Blood Pressure

    (mm Hg)

    Newborn 98.2 F (36.8 C)

    (Axillary)

    80-180 30-60 73/55

    1-3 yr 99.9 F (37.7 C) (Rectal) 80-140 20-40 90/55

    6-8 yr 98.6 F (37 C) (Oral) 75-120 15-25 95/75

    10yr 98.6 F (37 C) (Oral) 75-110 15-25 102/62Teens 98.6 F (37 C) (Oral) 60-100 15-20 102/80

    Adults 98.6 F (37 C) (Oral) 60-100 12-20 120/80

    > 70 yr 96.8 F (36) (Oral) 60-100 15-20 120/80

    2. List the equipment used for measuring each vital sign.

    The equipment needed for temperature could be electronic and digital thermometers, tympanic

    membrane thermometers, disposable single-use thermometers, temporal artery thermometers,

    and automated monitoring devices. The equipment for measuring pulse is a stethoscope or a

    Doppler ultrasound stethoscope. For respirations, one could use a stethoscope for listening or

    monitoring arterial blood gas results and using a pulse oximeter to determine oxygenation of

    blood. The equipment for blood pressure could be a sphygmomanometer, automated blood

    pressure monitors, doppler ultrasound, and a direct electronic measurement.

    3. List rationales underlying each procedure.

    The rationales for body temperature: The digital thermometer must be activated to record the

    temperature.

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    Discarding the probe cover ensures that it will not be reused accidentally on another

    patient. Proper disposal prevents the spread of microorganisms. If necessary, the thermometer

    should stay on the charger so that it is ready to use at all times.

    If left unsupported, the weight of the probe tends to pull it away from the correct location.

    The signal indicated the measurement is completed. The electronic thermometer provides a

    digital display of the measured temperature.

    Rationale for Obtaining Peripheral Pulse by Palpation:

    Gloves are not usually worn to obtain a pulse measurement unless contact with blood or

    body fluids is anticipated.

    The site must be exposed for pulse assessment. Exposing only the site keeps the patient

    warm and maintains his or her dignity.

    The sensitive fingertips can feel the pulsation of the artery.

    Rationale for Obtaining Respirations:

    The patient may alter the rate of respirations if he or she is aware they are being counted.

    Rationale for Obtaining Blood Pressure:

    Measurement of blood pressure may temporarily impede circulation to the extremity.

    The position of the arm can have a major influence when the blood pressure is measured.

    This position places the brachial artery on the inner aspect of the elbow so that the bell or

    diaphragm of the stethoscope can rest on it easily. This sitting position ensures accuracy.

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    Clothing over the artery interferes with the ability to hear sounds and can cause

    inaccurate blood pressure readings. A tight sleeve would cause congestion of blood and possibly

    inaccurate readings.

    Rationale for Obtaining All Vital Signs:

    Assessment and measurement of vital signs at appropriate intervals provide important

    data about the patient's health status. Bringing everything to the bedside conserves time and

    energy. Arranging items nearby is convenient, saves time, and avoids unnecessary stretching and

    twisting of muscles on the part of the nurse.

    Hand hygiene and PPE prevent the spread of microorganisms. PPE is required based on

    transmission precautions.

    Identifying the patient ensures the right patient receives the intervention and helps

    prevents errors.

    Explanation relieves anxiety and facilitates cooperation. Dialogue encourages patient

    participation and allows for individualized nursing care.

    4. List the time intervals for measuring the temperature by the various routes.

    : if the patient has smoked, chewed gum, or consumed hot or cold food, wait 30 minutes before

    taking an oral temperature. If patients axilla has been washed recently, wait 15 to 30 minutes

    5. List common sites for obtaining the pulse.

    Common sites for obtaining the pulse are the temporal artery, carotid artery, brachial artery,

    radial artery, femoral artery, popliteal artery, posterior tibial artery, and dorsalis pedis artery.

    6. List the correct procedure to obtain respiratory rate.

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    The correct procedure to obtain a respiratory rate is to observe thepatientsrespiration while

    your fingers are still in place for the pulse measurement, note the rise and fall of the patients

    chest, count the number of respirations with secondhand watch for 30 seconds then multiply by 2

    to get the respiratory rate per minute. If respirations are abnormal, count for at least one full

    minute. Note the depth and rhythm of the respirations. Remove gloves if you wore any and cover

    the patient and help him or her to a position of comfort. Perform hand hygiene.

    7. List the correct procedure to obtain the blood pressure.

    1. The correct procedure to obtain blood pressure: Check physician's order or

    nursing plan for frequency of blood pressure measurement.

    2. Perform hand hygiene and put on PPE, if indicated.

    3. Identify the patient.

    4. Close curtains around bed and close the door to the room. Discuss procedure with

    patient and assess patient's ability to assist with the procedure. Validate that the

    patient has relaxed for several minutes.

    5. Select the appropriate arm for application of the cuff.

    6. Have the patient assume a comfortable lying or sitting position with the forearm

    supported at the level of the heart and the palm of the hand upward. If the patient

    is sitting, have him or her sit back in the chair so that the chair supports his neck

    or her back. In addition, make sure the patient keeps the legs uncrossed.

    7.

    Expose the brachial artery by removing garments, or move a sleeve, if it is not too

    tight, above the area where the cuff will be placed.

    8. Palpate the location of the brachial artery. Center the bladder of the cuff over the

    brachial artery, about midway on the arm. Line the artery marking on the cuff

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    with the patient's brachial artery. The tubing should extend from the edge of the

    cuff nearer the patient's elbow.

    9. Wrap the cuff around the arm smoothly and snugly and fasten it.

    10.Palpate the pulse at the brachial artery by pressing gently with the fingertips.

    11.Tighten the screw valve on the air pump.

    12.Inflate the cuff while continuing to palpate the artery. Note the point on the gauge

    where the pulse disappears.

    13.Deflate the cuff and wait 1 minute.

    14.

    Assume a position that is no more than 3 feet away from the gauge.

    15.Place the stethoscope earpieces in your ears.

    16.Place the bell of the stethoscope firmly but with as little pressure as possible over

    the brachial artery.

    17.Pump the pressure 30 mm Hg above the point at which the systolic pressure was

    palpated and estimated. Open the valve on the manometer and allow air to escape

    slowly.

    18.Note the point on the gauge at which the first faint, but clear, sound appears that

    slowly increases in intensity. Note this number as the systolic pressure.

    19.Note the point at which the sound completely disappears and record it as the

    diastolic pressure.

    20.Allow the remaining air to escape quickly. Repeat any suspicious reading, but

    wait at least 1 minute. Deflate the cuff completely between attempts to check the

    blood pressure.

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    21.When measurement is completed, remove the cuff. Remove gloves, if worn.

    Cover the patient and help him or her to a position of comfort.

    22.Perform hand hygiene.

    23.Clean the diaphragm of the stethoscope with the alcohol wipe. Clean and store the

    sphygmomanometer, according to facility policy.

    8. List the correct procedure to obtain an oxygen saturation level.

    The correct procedure to obtain an oxygen saturation level: 1. Review the chart for health

    problems that would affect the reading. 2. Bring necessary equipment to the bedside stand or

    overbed table. 3. Perform hand hygiene and put on PPE. 4. Identify the patient. 5. Close curtains

    around the bed and close the door to the room, if possible. Explain what you are doing and why

    you are going to do it. 6. Select an adequate site for application of the sensor. 8. Select the proper

    equipment. 8. Prepare the monitoring site. Cleanse the selected area with the alcohol wipe or

    disposable cleansing cloth. Allow the area to dry. 9. Apply the probe securely to skin. Make sure

    that the light emitting sensor and the light-receiving sensor are aligned opposite each other. 10.

    Connect the sensor probe to the pulse oximeter, turn the oximeter on, and check operation of the

    equipment. 11. Set alarms on pulse oximeter. 12. Check oxygen saturation at regular intervals, as

    ordered by primary care provider, nursing assessment, and signaled by alarms. Monitor

    hemoglobin level. 13. Remove sensor on a regular basis and check for skin irritation or signs of

    pressure. 14. Clean nondisposable sensors according to the manufacturers directions. Remove

    PPE.

    9. Describe the formula for converting Fahrenheit to Centigrade.

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    To convert from Fahrenheit, first subtract 32 from the temperature in Fahrenheit. Then multiply

    the answer from the first step by five ninths (5/9). Add the degrees symbol and the temperature is

    now in Centigrade (also known as Celsius)

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    References

    Carol R. Taylor, C. L. (2011).Fundamentals of Nursing: The Art and Science of Nursing Care.

    Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health.

    Lynn, P. (2011). Taylor's Clinical Nursing Skills: A Nursing Process Approach.Philadelphia:

    Wolters Kluwer Health.