Cloud Computing - Arcitura cial cloud computing industry, cloud computing vendor platforms, and further

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  • Cloud Computing Concepts, Technology & Architecture

    Thomas Erl, Zaigham Mahmood, and Ricardo Puttini

    PRENTICE HALL

    UPPER SADDLE RIVER, NJ • BOSTON • INDIANAPOLIS • SAN FRANCISCO

    NEW YORK • TORONTO • MONTREAL • LONDON • MUNICH • PARIS • MADRID

    CAPE TOWN • SYDNEY • TOKYO • SINGAPORE • MEXICO CITY

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  • Contents at a Glance Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxix

    Chapter 1: Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1

    Chapter 2: Case Study Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13

    PART I: FUNDAMENTAL CLOUD COMPUTING Chapter 3: Understanding Cloud Computing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25

    Chapter 4: Fundamental Concepts and Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51

    Chapter 5: Cloud-Enabling Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .79

    Chapter 6: Fundamental Cloud Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117

    PART II: CLOUD COMPUTING MECHANISMS Chapter 7: Cloud Infrastructure Mechanisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .139

    Chapter 8: Specialized Cloud Mechanisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .169

    Chapter 9: Cloud Management Mechanisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .213

    Chapter 10: Cloud Security Mechanisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229

    PART III: CLOUD COMPUTING ARCHITECTURE Chapter 11: Fundamental Cloud Architectures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255

    Chapter 12: Advanced Cloud Architectures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .281

    Chapter 13: Specialized Cloud Architectures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323

    PART IV: WORKING WITH CLOUDS Chapter 14: Cloud Delivery Model Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359

    Chapter 15: Cost Metrics and Pricing Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .379

    Chapter 16: Service Quality Metrics and SLAs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 403

    PART V: APPENDICES appendix a: Case Study Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .421

    appendix B: Industry Standards Organizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .427

    appendix C: Mapping Mechanisms to Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 433

    appendix d: Data Center Facilities (TIA-942) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437

    appendix e: Emerging Technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 443

    appendix F: Cloud Provisioning Contracts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 449

    appendix G: Cloud Business Case Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .461

    About the Authors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 465

    About the Foreword Contributor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .467

    About the Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 469

    Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .471

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  • Chapter 1

    Introduction

    1.1 Objectives of This Book

    1.2 What This Book Does Not Cover

    1.3 Who This Book Is For

    1.4 How This Book Is Organized

    1.5 Conventions

    1.6 Additional Information

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  • The past couple of decades saw the business-centric concept of outsourcing services and the technology-centric notion of utility computing evolve along relatively par- allel streams. When they finally met to form a technology landscape with a compelling business case and seismic impacts on the IT industry as a whole, it became evident that what resultantly was termed and branded as “cloud computing” was more than just another IT trend. It had become an opportunity to further align and advance the goals of the business with the capabilities of technology.

    Those who understand this opportunity can seize it to leverage proven and mature components of cloud platforms to not only fulfill existing strategic business goals, but to even inspire businesses to set new objectives and directions based on the extent to which cloud-driven innovation can further help optimize business operations.

    The first step to succeeding is education. Cloud computing adoption is not trivial. The cloud computing marketplace is unregulated. And, not all products and technologies branded with “cloud” are, in fact, sufficiently mature to realize or even supportive of realizing actual cloud computing benefits. To add to the confusion, there are different definitions and interpretations of cloud-based models and frameworks floating around IT literature and the IT media space, which leads to different IT professionals acquiring different types of cloud computing expertise.

    And then, of course, there is the fact that cloud computing is, at its essence, a form of ser- vice provisioning. As with any type of service we intend to hire or outsource (IT-related or otherwise), it is commonly understood that we will be confronted with a marketplace comprised of service providers of varying quality and reliability. Some may offer attrac- tive rates and terms, but may have unproven business histories or highly proprietary environments. Others may have a solid business background, but may demand higher rates and less flexible terms. Others yet, may simply be insincere or temporary business ventures that unexpectedly disappear or are acquired within a short period of time.

    Back to the importance of getting educated. There is no greater danger to a business than approaching cloud computing adoption with ignorance. The magnitude of a failed adoption effort not only correspondingly impacts IT departments, but can actually regress a business to a point where it finds itself steps behind from where it was prior

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  • 1.1 Objectives of This Book 3

    to the adoption—and, perhaps, even more steps behind competitors that have been suc- cessful at achieving their goals in the meantime.

    Cloud computing has much to offer but its roadmap is riddled with pitfalls, ambigui- ties, and mistruths. The best way to navigate this landscape is to chart each part of the journey by making educated decisions about how and to what extent your project should proceed. The scope of an adoption is equally important to its approach, and both of these aspects need to be determined by business requirements. Not by a product vendor, not by a cloud vendor, and not by self-proclaimed cloud experts. Your organiza- tion’s business goals must be fulfilled in a concrete and measurable manner with each completed phase of the adoption. This validates your scope, your approach, and the overall direction of the project. In other words, it keeps your project aligned.

    Gaining a vendor-neutral understanding of cloud computing from an industry per- spective empowers you with the clarity necessary to determine what is factually cloud- related and what is not, as well as what is relevant to your business requirements and what is not. With this information you can establish criteria that will allow you to fil- ter out the parts of the cloud computing product and service provider marketplaces to focus on what has the most potential to help you and your business to succeed. We developed this book to assist you with this goal.

    —Thomas Erl

    1.1 Objectives of This Book

    This book is the result of more than two years of research and analysis of the commer- cial cloud computing industry, cloud computing vendor platforms, and further inno- vation and contributions made by cloud computing industry standards organizations and practitioners. The purpose of this book is to break down proven and mature cloud computing technologies and practices into a series of well-defined concepts, models, and technology mech