COAST ARTILLERY FIELD MANUAL - 9th Infantry COAST ARTILLERY FIELD MANUAL SEACOAST ARTILLERY ORGANIZATION

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  • FM 4-5

    U.S. ARNY MIl.ITARY IA1STu0" 3 .- 8 CARLiSLE BARRACk S, PA 17013-5008

    UNCLASSIFIED REGRADED BY AUTHORITy

    ) OF E .O_0501

    DECLASSIFIED

    WAR DEPARTMENT

    COAST ARTILLERY FIELD MANUAL

    SEACOAST ARTILLERY

    ORGANIZATION AND TACTICS

  • Ri hi&_rTI&IULASSIFIED

    FM 4-5

    COAST ARTILLERY FIELD MANUAL

    SEACOAST ARTILLERY

    ORGANIZATION AND TACTICS

    Prepared under direction of the Chief of Coast Artillery

    UNITED STATES

    GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE

    WASHINGTON: 1040

    MecmSsftED

  • WAR DEPARTMENT, WASHINGTON, July 29, 1940.

    FM 4-5, Coast Artillery Field Manual, Seacoast Artillery, Organization and Tactics, is published for the information and guidance of all concerned.

    [A. G. 062.11 (4-24-0).1 BY ORDER OF THE SECRETARY OF WAR:

    G. C. MARSHALL, Chief of Staff.

    OFFICIL: E. S. ADAMS,

    Major General, The Adjutant General.

    U1

  • TABLE OF CONTENTS

    PART ONE. ORGANIZATION. Paragraphs Page CHAPTEr 1. Fundamentals of organization._ 16- 1 CHAPTEr 2. Organization of seacoast artil-

    lery units. SectionI. Harbor defense units ------- 7-14 5

    II. Tractor-drawn artillery units 15-19 11 m. Railway artillery units … ----- 20-23 14

    CHAPTER 3. Organization of coastal frontier defense… _....______. _ 24-31 17

    CHAPTER 4. Organization of harbor defense. SectionI. Harbor defense … . ....... .32-41 21

    II. Battery _____.-__-_-_- ------ 42-43 29 III. Group ____-_.---__--------- 44-50 30 IV. Groupment .---------------- 51-57 33

    V. Fort __........__..._ 565 36 CHAPTERa 5. Tactical organization of mobile

    seacoast artillery -___._.____ 66-69 38 CHATER 6. Duties of seacoast artillery staff

    officers. Section I. General- .------ __ _.-._ ___ 70-73 40

    IL. Staff -___-__-__._____-_-____ 74-92 41 PART Two. TACTIcs.

    CHAePrR 7. General. SectlonI. Coastal frontier defense … --.- 93-95 47

    II. Characteristics of seacoast artillery… -.---------______ 9699 48

    III. Naval vessels, characteristics and formations- ---------- 100-106 51

    IV. Effects of fire -.------------ 107-112 56 V. Control of fire against naval

    targets- .------------- - 113-120 60 CHAPTER 8. Types and positions of seacoast

    artillery. Section I. Armament requirements… --- 121-123 66

    II. Positions for seacoast artillery 124-126 68 CHAPTER 9. Protection.

    Section I. General_ - ________ ___.-.- 127-128 73 II. Camouflage .---------------- 129-140 74

    III. Cover ….................. .. …141-144 84 IV. Protection against air and

    chemical attack -_------- 145-149 87 V. Automatic weapons defense__ 150-152 89

    VI. Local security …__---------- 153-158 91 VII. Defense against mechanized

    units --------------------- 159-161 95 CHAPTER 10. Tactical employment of harbor

    defense. Section I. Employment of seacoast artil-

    lery in harbor defense .___- 162-172 97 II. Employment of submarine

    mines and obstacles -.- __- 173-180 104

    ITI

  • TABLE OF CONTENTS

    PART Two. TAcncs-Contlnued. Paragraph Page CHAPrn 11. Tactical employment of mobile

    seacoast artillery. Section I. General .-.-.----------- 181 110

    II. Movement of tractor-drawn artillery …----------------- 182-193 110

    III. Movement of railway artil- lery --------------------- 194-199 116

    IV. Tactical employment in har- bor defenses …------------- 200-201 119

    V. Tactical employment in coastal frontier d e f e n s e outside harbor defenses._- 202-207 120

    CHnrrn 12. Tactical employment of search- lights and other means of Illumination.

    Section I. General ....- ............ 208-209 125 II. Mission, types, and func-

    tions… ......... ......... 210D-212 125 III. Emplacement of search-

    lights …------------------ 213-221 126 IV. Searchlight direction and

    control ----------.-----.. 222-229 131 V. Tactical employment …----- 230-235 136

    VI. Illumination -------------- 236-238 139 CHArerm 13. Signal communication.

    Section I. General --.................. 239-241 142 II. Signal communication for

    fixed seacoast artillery -... 242-246 144 ITI. Signal communication for

    mobile seacoast artillery--- 247 250 152 IV. Radio … . ................. 251 155 V. Message centers . … ......... 252-254 156

    CHAPTER 14. Seacoast artillery intelligence service and liaison.

    Section I. Intelligence service ------- 255-257 157 II. Sources of information ---- 258-259 159

    III. Collection of information___ 260-261 161 iv. Evaluation of information__ 262 165 V. Dissemination of informa-

    tion --------------------- 263 266 165 VI. Intelligence documents …--- 267-273 168

    VII. Liaison -. ................ 274-276 173 CHAPrT 15. Supply and evacuation.

    Section I. Supply methods and termi- nology ------------------- 277-279 175

    U. In a harbor defense ------ 280-283 176 III. For mobile artillery …------ 284-287 177

    CHAPTE 16. Plans and projects. Section I. General -..---.- --. . ..... 288-289 180

    II. Estimate of situation - ..... 290-291 180 III. Seacoast artillery defense

    plans ------------------- 292-293 183 CHAPTE 17. Commands and orders.

    Section I. General ..-. ............. 294-298 186 II. Commands and orders ----- 299-308 189

    III. Field orders ….-.-. ........ 309313 195 INDex --.----..---.-...................... 203

    IV

  • FM 4-5

    DECLASSIFIED

    RESOVD COAST ARTILLERY FIELD MANUAL

    SEACOAST ARTILLERY

    ORGANIZATION AND TACTICS

    (The matter contained herein supersedes part one, Coast Artillery Field Manual, volume I, January 3, 1933.)

    PART ONE

    ORGANIZATION

    CHAPTER 1

    FUNDAMENTALS OF ORGANIZATION

    U 1. MILITARY ORGANIZATION.--a. A military organization is a group of troops operating as a unit under a leader or com- mander, and performing a particular duty or class of duties. Two important factors influencing organization of units are control of the unit and duty to be performed by the unit.

    b. There is a limit to the number of individuals that a single commander can control effectively. To insure effective control, an organization containing more individuals than can be controlled by a single commander is subdivided into several smaller organizations, each functioning under its own com- mander. The commander of the larger unit is then able to control effectively action of the smaller units through their unit commanders.

    c. If a number of organizations are engaged in performing the same duty, teamwork will be secured by placing them under a single commander. On the other hand, administra- tion, supply, and training can often be handled most efficiently by keeping units in the same area under the same control. This factor may require that a unit be included in one organ- ization for one purpose and in a different organization for another purpose.

    1

    DECLASSIFIED

  • 2-3 COAST ARTILLERY FIELD MANUAL

    * 2. FUNDAMENTAL ELEMENTS OF A MILITARY ORGANIZATION.- The fundamental elements in any military organization are-

    a. Command elements, consisting of a single head or com- mander, together with such assistants or staff officers as are necessary to relieve him of the burden of details and enable him to exercise adequate control over his command.

    b. Combat elements, consisting of such combat troops as are necessary to carry out the combat mission assigned to the organization.

    c. Service elements, consisting of such technical, supply, or administrative services as, are necessary to maintain fighting efficiency of combat elements as well as to carry out any service mission assigned to the organization.

    * 3. COMMAND ELEMENT--The command element may be di- vided into three parts, commander, staff, and enlisted assist- ants.

    a. Commander.-(1) All orders and instructions from a higher unit to a subordinate unit are given to the commander thereof, and each individual commander looks to his immedi- ate superior for necessary orders and instructions. By this means authority and responsibility are definitely fixed and the channels of command are definitely established.

    (2) The commander of any unit is responsible to his supe- rior for all the unit does or fails to do. Guided by orders issued by his superior, he directs all activities of his own unit. He is responsible for all policies, plans, or basic decisions which affect condition, morale, supply, training, discipline, administration, and employment of his command. He cannot avoid this responsibility. His authority over all elements of his organization is complete and final.

    b. Staff.-(1) As the number of elements or units grouped under one commander is increased, a point is soon reached where the multiplicity of details requiring consideration by the commander is so great that they cannot be handled by one person. Beginning at this point, each unit commander is provided with an appropriate staff. The staff consists of those officers specifically designated for the purpose of assisting the commander in exercising his command functions. Certain of these officers have no duties other than staff duties, while

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  • ORGANIZATION AND TACTICS 3-5

    others have staff duties in addition to their primary functions as commanders of combat or service troops.

    (2) The organization of a staff is based on the duties of the commander. It is prescribed in Tables of Organization, in Army Regulations, and in Field Manual