Coaxial Heli

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    Master Thesis

    Coaxial Helicopter Design

    Professor: Roland Siegwart Candidate: Yves Stauffer

    First supervisor: Samir Bouabdallah Section: MicrotechnologySecond supervisor: Andr Noth Lausanne, February 2005

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    Stauffer Yves Coaxial Helicopter Design Winter 2004

    2

    "The idea of a vehicle that could lift itself vertically from the ground and hover motionless inthe air was probably born at the same time that man first dreamed of flying."

    Igor Ivanovitch Sikorsky

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    EIDGENSSISCHE TECHNISCHE HOCHSCHULE LAUSANNEPOLITECNICO FEDERALE DI LOSANNASWISS FEDERAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY LAUSANNE

    FACULTE SCIENCES ET TECHNIQUES DE LINGENIEUR

    LABORATOIRE DE SYSTEMES AUTONOMESCH-1015LAUSANNE

    COLE POLYTECHNIQUEFDRALE DE LAUSANNE

    PROJET DE DIPLOME HIVER 2004/2005

    Titre: Contribution la conception dun micro hlicoptre rotors coaxiaux

    Candidat: Yves Stauffer Section: MT

    Professeur: Roland Siegwart

    Assistant 1: Samir Bouabdallah Assistant 2: Andr Noth

    Donne & travail demand :

    Le prsent projet sinscrit dans le cadre dune thse visant concevoir et contrler des micros

    hlicoptres. Il sagit pour ce travail de concevoir la mcanique dune nouvelle plateforme

    dhlicoptre miniature doubles rotors coaxiaux. Le but long terme de ce projet est darriver

    une plateforme autonome de moins de 50g. Ceci tant consquent, le travail doit tre divis en

    plusieurs projets. Pour la premire partie, le travail demand est le suivant :

    Rflexion sur la conception mcanique.

    Etablissement dun catalogue de solutions.

    Dimensionnement du robot.

    Ralisation de llectronique. Synthse dun contrleur simplifie.

    Interface de contrle simplifie.

    Ralisation et tests du premier prototype (en collaboration avec un technicien).

    Remarques :

    Un plan de travail sera tabli et prsent aux assistants avant le 1er novembre 2004.

    Une prsentation intermdiaire (environ 10 minutes de prsentation et 10 minutes de discussion) de votre travail auralieu dans le courant du mois de dcembre 2004. Elle a pour objectifs de donner un rapide rsum du travail djeffectu, de proposer un plan prcis pour la suite du projet et den discuter les options principales.

    Un rapport, comprenant en son dbut l'nonc du travail (prsent document), suivi d'un rsum d'une page (seloncanevas), sera remis le vendredi 18 fvrier 2005 en 4 exemplaires au secrtariat de votre section. Laccent sera mis surles expriences et les rsultats obtenus. Le public cible est de type ingnieur EPF sans connaissance pointue dudomaine. Une version prliminaire du rapport sera remise lassistant le 11 fvrier 2005. Tous les documents enversion informatique, y compris le rapport (en version source et en version pdf), le document de la prsentation orale et

    un rsum au format pdf, ainsi que les sources des diffrents programmes doivent tre grav sur un CD-ROM et remis lassistant au plus tard lors de la dfense finale.

    Une dfense de 40 minutes (environ 20 minutes de prsentation et dmonstration, plus 20 minutes de rponses aux

    questions) aura lieu dans la priode du 7 au 14 mars 2005.

    Le professeur responsable: L'assistant responsable:

    Signature : Signature :

    Roland Siegwart Samir Bouabdallah

    Lausanne, le 18 octobre 2004

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    Autonomous SystemsLaboratory

    Master Thesis Summary Winter 2003-2004

    Designt of a Micro Coaxial HelicopterStauffer Yves, Microtechnology

    Professor :

    Supervisors :

    Siegwart Roland

    Bouabdallah Samir, Noth Andr

    Flying robots are an increasing field of researchin the academic world. ASL (AutonomousSystems Lab) already gained valuableknowledge in this domain thanks to the OS4 andFlying Alice projects. As one knows bothconfigurations depicted in figure 1 are naturallyunstable, thus a fast and powerful control has to

    be performed. In this context it was decided to

    build a flying robot that would be auto-stable.

    Figure 1: Flying Alice and OS4 and proxfly

    The overall mechanical concept from proxflyer(www.proxflyer.com) was studied. The outcomeof this is a novel coaxial helicopter that can be

    observed on figure 2.

    Altitude is controlled by the two main propellerswhich are actuated by a brushless motor(Typhoon 05-3D). Three lateral propellers allowcontrolling yaw and translation. Furthermore this

    helicopter is equipped with an infra red distancesensor (Sharp) which allows performing altitudecontrol and a gyroscope (ADXRS150 from

    Analog Devices). Finally communicationbetween an on ground computer and the robot isdone via Bluetooth (WML-C10 from Mitsumy).It is energetically autonomous thanks to LithiumPolymer batteries from Kokam.

    Figure 2: Coax

    Tests were performed and pointed out that

    controlling yaw was feasible with thisconfiguration. Translation however was not yetachieved. The main drawback of this design is itsbreakability. Indeed the two main propellers are

    subject to vibrations and tend to break quiteoften. A redesign of the latter would be a greatstep forward. Several other design hints are nowavailable in the report for future projects. The

    work done for this project gives solid bases and

    chances for a fast evolution of the Coax family.

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    Stauffer Yves Coaxial Helicopter Design Winter 2004

    1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................. 71.1 Feathers, helicopters and drones ...................................................................................... 71.2 Special considerations with flying objects....................................................................... 9

    2 Objectives.............................................................................................................................. 102.1 Goal of this project ......................................................................................................... 102.2 Possible applications ...................................................................................................... 102.3 Overview of the tasks..................................................................................................... 11

    3 State of the art ....................................................................................................................... 124 Problems and possible solutions ........................................................................................... 15

    4.1 Altitude control ..............................................................................................................164.1.1 Motor....................................................................................................................... 164.1.2 Direction inverter .................................................................................................... 174.1.3 Main propeller ......................................................................................................... 18

    4.2 Yaw and translation control ........................................................................................... 194.2.1 Flaps ........................................................................................................................ 19

    4.2.2 Small lateral propellers............................................................................................ 194.2.3 Magnus cylinders .................................................................................................... 204.3 Structure ......................................................................................................................... 214.4 Electronics...................................................................................................................... 21

    4.4.1 Sensors .................................................................................................................... 214.4.2 Motor control........................................................................................................... 224.4.3 Batteries................................................................................................................... 224.4.4 Communication ....................................................................................................... 224.4.5 Microprocessor........................................................................................................ 23

    5 Theory ................................................................................................................................... 245.1 Propeller ......................................................................................................................... 24

    5.1.1 Thrust and drag........................................................................................................ 245.1.2 Wind speed..............................................................................................................245.1.3 Stability ................................................................................................................... 25

    5.2 Flap theory...................................................................................................................... 275.3 Flaps calculations for the Coax case .............................................................................. 285.4 Magnus........................................................................................................................... 285.5 Magnus calculations for the Coax case......