Cognitivists (ed2) 2 [autosaved]

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  • 2. Cognitivism as a perspective in education, has a premise that humans generate knowledge and meaning through sequential development of an individuals cognitive abilities, such as the mental processes of recognize, recall, analyze, reflect, apply, create, understand, and evaluate.
  • 3. , The Cognitivists' (e.g. Piaget, Vygotsky, Bruner) learning process is adoptive learning of techniques, procedures, organization, and structure to develop internal cognitive structure that strengthens synapses in the brain. The learner requires assistance to develop prior knowledge and integrate new knowledge.
  • 4. The purpose in education is to develop conceptual knowledge, techniques, procedures, and algorithmic problem solving using Verbal/Linguistic and Logical/Mathematical intelligences. The learner requires scaffolding to develop schema and adopt knowledge from both people and the environment. The educators' role is pedagogical in that the instructor must develop conceptual knowledge by managing the content of learning activities. This theory relates to early stages of learning where the learner solves well defined problems through a series of stages
  • 5. Cognitivists
  • 6. Jean William Fritz Piaget August 9 1896 Neuchatel, Switzerland September 16 1980 (aged 84) Geneva, Switzerland
  • 7. Piaget was born in 1896 in Neuchatel, in the Francophone region of Switzerland. He was the eldest son of Arthur Piaget (Swiss), a professor of medieval literature at the University of Neuchatel, and Rebecca Jackson (French). Jean with his two sisters and his parents; Arthur Piaget & Rebecca Jackson-Piaget Jean Piaget at the age of 10
  • 8. Piaget was a precocious child who developed an interest in biology and the natural world. His early interest in zoology earned him a reputation among those in the field after he had published several articles on mollusks by the age of 15. He was educated at the University of Neuchtel, and studied briefly at the University of Zurich.
  • 9. During this time, he published two philosophical papers that showed the direction of his thinking at the time, but which he later dismissed as adolescent thought. His interest in psychoanalysis, at the time a burgeoning strain of psychology, can also be dated to this periodPiaget moved from Switzerland to Paris, France after his graduation and he taught at the Grange-Aux- Belles Street School for Boys.
  • 10. The school was run by Alfred Binet, the developer of the Binet intelligence test, and Piaget assisted in the marking of Binet's intelligence tests. It was while he was helping to mark some of these tests that Piaget noticed that young children consistently gave wrong answers to certain questions.
  • 11. Piaget did not focus so much on the fact of the children's answers being wrong, but that young children consistently made types of mistakes that older children and adults did not. This led him to the theory that young children's cognitive processes are inherently different from those of adults. Ultimately, he was to propose a global theory of cognitive developmental stages in which individuals exhibit certain common patterns of cognition in each period of development
  • 12. Piaget thought that childrens thinking changes in the certain range of ages. According to him, childrens schema and cognitive develop naturally as they face with new situations and experiences in their lives. Piaget grouped the childrens cognitive development into four stages.
  • 13. Jean Piagets theory of cognitive development.
  • 14. Piaget grouped the childrens cognitive development into four stages. Firstly, the sensorimotor stage (ages 0-2) Involves two important development processes which include the childs development of five senses and motor development. Children learn by interacting physically with the environment to recognize things or objects.
  • 15. Secondly, the preoperational stage ranged from ages 2 to 7. At this stage, children are not able to think abstractly so that they need concrete situations to process the ideas.
  • 16. Thirdly, in the concrete operation stage (ages 7-12) Children have enough experiences to begin to think logically and do some abstract problem solving, such as manipulating figures or symbols and classifying, though they still learn best by doing.
  • 17. The last stage is formal operation stage (12 years onward) At this stage, children are able to use abstract thinking like adults. For examples, they begin to think about what ifquestions, work with hypotheses, and think about possibilities then check them against the reality.
  • 18. Countless educators all over the world put Piaget principles into daily practice, greatly improving the performance of children in the areas of math, science, and even language acquisition and social studies. Overall, his work in child cognition revolutionized our way of thinking about children, and about learning, intelligence, and the nature of knowledge. At the time of his death in 1980, at the age of 84, Piaget's career had spanned some 70+ years and given birth to whole new fields in science. Among these are the studies of genetic epistemology, cognitive theory, and developmental psychology.
  • 19. Lev Semyonovich Vygotsky (Russian: (Lev Simkhovich Vygodsky)) November 17 [O.S. November 5] 1896 June 11, 1934) was a Soviet Belarusian psychologist, the founder of a theory of human cultural and biosocial development commonly referred to as cultural-historical psychology, and leader of the Vygotsky Circle.
  • 20. Lev Vygotsky was born in the town of Orsha, Belarus, in the Russian Empire (present-day Belarus) into a non-religious middle class Jewish family. His father was a banker. He was raised in the city of Gomel, Belarus, where he obtained both public and private education. In 1913 Vygotsky was admitted to the Moscow State University through a Jewish Lottery" to meet a three percent Jewish student quota for entry in Moscow and Saint Petersberg universities.
  • 21. For unclear reasons, around early 1920s, he changed his birth name from Vygodskii (with "d") into Vygotskii (with middle "t") and his patronymic from original Jewish "Simkhovich" to Slavic "Semenovich". In January 1924, Vygotsky took part in the Second All-Russian Psychoneurological Congress in Leningrad. Soon thereafter, Vygotsky received an invitation to become a research fellow at the Psychological Institute in Moscow. He began his career at the Psychological Institute as a "staff scientist, second class.
  • 22. By the end of 1925, Vygotsky completed his dissertation in 1925 on "The Psychology of Art" (not published until