Cold War

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Cold War- . Korea was previously a territory of Japan After WWII Korea is divided North of the 38 th parallel North of this line Japan had surrendered to the USSR South of this line they surrendered to the USA Two nations emerged Communist industrial North- set up by USSR - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Text of Cold War

Cold War

Cold War- 1Korea After WWIIKorea was previously a territory of JapanAfter WWII Korea is divided North of the 38th parallelNorth of this line Japan had surrendered to the USSRSouth of this line they surrendered to the USATwo nations emergedCommunist industrial North- set up by USSRNon-Communist rural South- supported by Western powersBy 1949 most of the troops from both side had withdrawn2Korea- setting the stage for WarThe Soviets did not think that the US would defend the South so they supplied the North with:TanksAirplanesMoneyGoal: to take over the peninsula

3StandoffJune 1950 at the 38th Parallel North Korea launched a surprise invasion of the SouthIt took only days for the Northern forces to find themselves deep in Southern territoryTruman had a decision to makeHe believed that the North Koreans were attempting the same thing that the Axis powers had done before WWII. Trumans policy of containment was put to the test.He decided he had an obligation to help the South resist Communism The South Koreans also asked for help from the UNPotential problem: USSR is a member and can veto aiding Solution: USSR refused to participate4The Return of a heroThe UN had 15 nations vote to aid the South KoreansBy the time troops got there the North controlled all but one very small area of the peninsula known as Pusan.A major leader in getting the UN there and leading the troops wasGeneral Douglas MacArthurSeptember 1950 MacArthur launches a surprise attacks fromPusanInchonNorth Korea surrenders

5The pursuitThe UN forces follow the retreating North KoreansThey forced them back across the parallel and almost up to the Yalu River at the border with China. China was not happyThey sent 300,000 troops in to help the North Koreans in Oct 1950.By Jan 1951 the UN and South Korean forces were back across the parallel The Chinese did not stopThey continued and captured Seoul

6The hero turnsMacArthur felt defeated by thisHe called for a nuclear attack on ChinaTruman said he was being reckless- We are trying to prevent a World War, not start oneMacArthur then went over Trumans head and appealed to Congress and the pressTruman had him removed7End of the WarBy 1952 UN forces had won back control of South KoreaThe border was very near to the original on the 38th Parallel. 1953 Ceasefire agreement between UN forces and North Korea

Outcomes:4 million soldiers and civilians had diedA demilitarized zone separates the two countriesThe US still keeps peace keeping troops in South Korea

8Vietnam- setting the stageDuring the early 1900s much of the Southeast Asian area was controlled by FranceKnown as French Indo-chinaIncluded: Vietnam, Laos, and CambodiaNationalist independence movements began in these areasVietnamese Nationalist Ho Chi Minh looked to the Communist for help with independenceIn the 1930s the Indochinese Communist party- led by Ho Chi Minh led revolts and strikes against France. 9Vietnam- French responseThe French responded to the revolts by jailing protesters and sentencing Ho Chi Minh to death.He was able to escape and fled to exileHe would return in 1941 after the fall of Japanese Upon his return he would work with other Nationalists to form the Vietminh Independence League. The Japanese were forced out in 1945Minh believed that independence would followFrance had other plans10War- Round 1The Vietnamese Nationalist and Communist joined forces to expel the French. The French quickly took control of many major cities, but the Vietminh had control in the country side. The U.S. supported FranceHit and Run tacticThe French people began doubting the necessity of War. 1954- Dien Bien Phu- the French military suffered a major military defeatThe French Surrendered11After the War- Geneva ConventionPresident Eisenhower feared that the domino theory would soon take affect in the area.The Geneva Convention took place to discuss the state of Indochina.Conclusions: Vietnam was divided at the 17th parallelNorth of the line Ho Chi Minhs communist party would ruleSouth of the line the U.S. and France set up an anti-communist government under the leadership of Ngo Dinh Diem

12Post War EraDiem ruled as a dictator in the South and opposition grew quickly.Communist guerrillas known as the Vietcong gained power in the SouthThey gradually won control of large areas in the countryside 1963 Diem was assassinated by a group of South Vietnamese generals. The new leaders were just as hated in the South. A Communist take-over backed by the North now seemed inevitable.

13U.S. InterventionU.S.= not happy Decided to increase its involvementNumbers of U.S. troops and equipment soon began to grow in the area.August 1964President Johnson told congress the North Vietnamese boats had attacked two destroyers in the Gulf of TonkinCongress authorized U.S. troops to fight 1965- 185,000 U.S. troops in Vietnam and planes had begun bombing the North. 14War- Round 2The U.S. had the best most advanced army in the world but they soon faced some major problems:They had never fought a true guerilla style war in the jungle. The South Vietnamese Government was decreasing rapidly in popularity. The Vietcong in the South was growing due to support from the North, USSR, and China Air assaultOutcomes:DestructionIncreasing popularity from the peasants for..The Vietcong

15Ending the WarThe War in the U.S. had sparked a protest movement.Against the loss of life in a war so far awayBy 1969 the public pressure had become so intense President Nixon was forced to withdraw the troops. The plan was known as VietnamizationIt allowed for the gradual exit of U.S. troops To preserve the government in the South, Nixon began a bombing campaign against the NorthAll American troops had left the area by 19731975 the North Vietnamese overran the south and the war ended.1.5 million Vietnamese were killed58,000 Americans killed

16Media WarThe Vietnam War was the first televised Media War. News clips of the brutal fighting were common occurrences in the U.S. also boomed with protest style lyrics promoting the ideals of peace and love rather than War.Fortunate Son- CCR 1969Imagine- John Lennon 1971Impact of War slipIf you were living in the Vietnam Era how would you respond to the War? Why 18