COLD WAR 1970s. COLD WAR 1970s The Cold War Begins to Thaw

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COLD WAR 1970s Slide 2 COLD WAR 1970s The Cold War Begins to Thaw Slide 3 Cold War 1970s Dtenteincreased cooperation and a relaxation of tensions. Two important events take place during this decade: U.S. China Relations and S.A.L.T. Slide 4 Cold War 1970s U.S.-China Relations President Richard M. Nixon opens relations With China after 22 years of mutual isolation. What was the motivation to reach out to communist China after all these years? Slide 5 Cold War 1970s Time For Peace Nixon In China Slide 6 Cold War Personality Profile Looking at the two great powers, the United States and Chinawe Can find common ground, despite our differences, to build a world structure in which both can be safe to develop in our own ways on our own roads. U.S. President Richard Nixon 1969-1973 Slide 7 Cold War 1970s Mao and Nixon meeting in February 1972 Slide 8 Cold War 1970s Nixon and Premier Zhou Enlai meeting in 1972 Slide 9 Cold War 1970s Slide 10 The U.S. opened relations with China for two reasons: 1) Nixon wanted to counterbalance the Soviet Unions global power and 2) Nixon wanted Beijings help to end the Vietnam War Slide 11 Cold War 1970s Nixon in China from the BBC Slide 12 Cold War 1970s S.A.L.T. What is S.A.L.T.? S trategicIt limited the two superpowers A rmsto 200 defensive nuclear L imitationsmissiles and froze the T alksnumber of intercontinental ballistic missiles for five years. Slide 13 Cold War 1970s Nixon and Brezhnev meeting on May 26, 1972 Slide 14 Cold War 1970s S.A.L.T. IMay 22, 1972 S.A.L.T IIJune 18, 1979 never ratified by U.S. considering the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan Slide 15 Cold War 1970s Helsinki Final Act The Helsinki Final Act was an agreement signed by 35 nations on August 1, 1975 that concluded the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe, held in Helsinki, Finland Slide 16 Cold War 1970s Helsinki Final Act Goals A variety of issues divided into four "baskets. First Basket principles covering political and military issues, territorial Integrity, the definition of borders, peaceful settlement of disputes and the implementation of confidence building measures between opposing militaries Slide 17 Cold War 1970s Helsinki Final Act Goals A variety of issues divided into four "baskets. Second Basket Economic issues like trade and scientific cooperation Slide 18 Cold War 1970s Helsinki Final Act Goals A variety of issues divided into four "baskets. Third Basket emphasized human rights, including freedom of emigration and reunification of families divided by international borders, cultural exchanges and freedom of the press Slide 19 Cold War 1970s Helsinki Final Act Goals A variety of issues divided into four "baskets. Fourth Basket Formalized the details for follow-up meetings and implementation procedures Slide 20 Cold War 1970s Helsinki Final Act Slide 21 Cold War in Cambodia P ol Pots Killing Fields Slide 22 Cambodia Slide 23 Cold War Personality Profile Pol Pot Saloth Sar Brother Number One Slide 24 Cambodia 1966Pol Pot influenced by China and Mao Zedongs policy of continuous revolution. 1969-1973U.S. Involvement, Ho Chi Minh Trail. U.S. bombs Cambodia in an effort to rid Vietnams Communist bases in Cambodia. 1975Year Zero, April 17, Phnom Penh falls, parts of the 2 million population are marched out of city. Why? Slide 25 Cambodia Year ZeroCampaign to purify Cambodian society of capitalism, Western culture, religion and all foreign influences in favor of isolation and a Maoist agrarian state. Agricultural collectives known as the Killing Fields. 1978Cambodia invaded by Vietnam, Pol Pot ousted. 1998Pol Pot dies April 15. 20012.2 to 2.5 million victims Slide 26 Cold War 1970sCambodia Slide 27 Cambodia Cold War Video The Killing Fields of Cambodia Slide 28 Cold War 1973 Overthrow in Chile, Allendes Leftist Regime Slide 29 Slide 30 Cold War 1970sChile Slide 31 Salvador Allende elected President of Chile on September 4, 1970, inaugurated on November 3, 1970. He gains 36.3% of the vote and becomes the first democratically elected socialist (communist) candidate. Slide 32 Cold War 1970sChile Slide 33 Background The U.S. had been involved in Chiles Government since as far back as 1958. The U.S. tried to stop the inauguration through a military coup. One of the opponents of the coup Army Chief of Staff was assassinated. Slide 34 Cold War 1970sChile Background Popular Unity coalition stated Chile was being exploited by parasitic foreign and domestic capitalists. By 1971, the government voted to unanimously nationalize the foreign copper which were owned by Kennecott and Anaconda. Slide 35 Cold War 1970sChile U.S. Interests Kennecott and Anaconda were two U.S. firms. The government took over virtually all the great estates and turned the lands over to the resident workers. Slide 36 Cold War 1970sChile U.S. Policy Popular Unity tried to maintain cordial relations with the U.S. The U.S. had a two track policy with Chile 1) official relations were friendly but not openly hostile 2) the U.S. would launch an economic blockade with other U.S. companies Slide 37 Cold War Personality Profile President Nixon informed the CIA director Richard Helms seen on the right to make the economy scream Slide 38 Cold War Video Slide 39 La Moneda Presidential Palace Slide 40 La Moneda September 11, 1973 Slide 41 Cold War Personality Profile Workers of my homeland: I have faith in Chile and its future. Other men will overcome this dark and bitter moment when treason is trying to be uppermost. You must continue to know that, sooner rather than later, grand avenues will be opened where free men will go to build a better society. Long live Chile; long live Chile; long live the workers. Slide 42 Cold War Personality Profile These are my last Words, certain that the sacrifice will not be in vain. I am sure that there will be at least a moral sanction that will punish the felony, cowardice and treason. Salvador Allende September 11, 1973 Slide 43 Cold War 1970s The Other 9/11 Slide 44 Cold War 1970s Pope John Paul II, Solidarity Movement and the Beginning of Communisms End Slide 45 Cold WarSolidarity Movement Pre-Cursor to Change in Poland Edward Gierek is the Prime Minister and the economy is in bad shape. Prices are increasing and protests are the result. Slide 46 Cold WarSolidarity Movement Pope John Pauls 1979 Visit30 Years of Soviet Rule Solidarity (Labor Union) = The Beginning of the End of Communism Slide 47 Cold War Solidarity Movement Roman Catholic Church The Prime Minister opens up a dialogue with Pope John Paul II. -Karol Wojtyla=Pope John Paul II (first non-Italian Pope since 1400s) installed on October 16, 1978. -June 2, 1979Open Air mass in Victory Sq. in Warsaw Dont Be Afraid Slide 48 Cold War Personality Profile Becomes pope upon the death of Pope John Paul I Slide 49 Cold WarSolidarity Movement Solidaritya labor Union started in Gdansk, Poland by Lech Walesa in August 1980. Strikes ensue and workers present a list of 21 Demands. January 1981Walesa and the Pope meet in the Vatican. Slide 50 Cold War 1980s Pope John Paul II and Solidarity leader Lech Walesa meeting in 1981 Slide 51 Cold WarSolidarity Movement Fall 1981 Solidarity expands its charter to all areas of society. They are looking for the establishment of democratic local governments, independent judges and equal protection under the law. Slide 52 Cold WarSolidarity Movement December 12-13, 1981 Poland declares Martial Law. Army and special riot police are used to crush the union. December 1982 Martial Law suspended, General amnesty in July 1983. Slide 53 Cold War 1970s Pope John Paul II Slide 54 Cold War 1980s Mikhail Gorbachev Perestroika (Restructuring) Glasnost (Openness)