Cold War Bernard Baruch coined the term “cold war”

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Text of Cold War Bernard Baruch coined the term “cold war”

Greece

Cold War

Bernard Baruch coined the term cold warWho started the Cold War?Period of political tensions lasting until the 1980sIdeological struggle(US)Capitalism vs. (Soviet Union) CommunismBecame rivals when common enemies were defeated

Yalta ConferenceFebruary 1945Stalin wanted to create a buffer zone (pro-soviet satellite states)between the Soviet Union and the Westfree electionsUS needed the Soviet Unions help against Japan

3Potsdam ConferenceJuly 1945

US/Soviet TensionsTruman and Churchill insisted on free elections in Eastern Europe

Stalin began forming his pro-soviet buffer zone (military occupation)

4SuperpowerCountry with military power and political influence

US became a superpower after WWIIUSSR- incomplete superpower

Struggle to maintain power led to Cold War

iron curtainMarch 1946

Churchill describing post war Soviet policy in Eastern Europe

What is the message of Churchills speech?What example does he use to justify his message?

6Greece

Civil War created tensions between the Soviet Union and Great Britain

December 1946-US begins plans for British withdraw from Greece

What plan did the US decide upon?

Truman DoctrineMarch 1947Result of Great Britain withdrawing aid from GreeceUS would provide money to countries threatened by Communist expansionAnticommunist support

Dean AchesonCompared spread of Communism to an infectionUS Propaganda Films

What can we do to fight Communism?

ContainmentDeveloped by US Diplomat George KennanLong TelegramPolicy adopted by the US toward the Soviets to stop the spread of Communism

European Recovery Program (Marshall Plan)June 1947Designed to restore economic stability of European nations after WWIIUS effort to rebuild war-torn Europe

Why did the US continue to intervene in European affairs after the war?

How does the Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan relate to containment?

Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON)Soviets response to the Marshall Plan

Failed because Soviets could not provide large amounts of foreign aid

12Post War GermanyDivided into four zonesBerlin located inside Soviet zone

BerlinBerlin divided into four zonesUS, GB, France plan to join zones to create West Germany

Why would a united West Germany be a threat to the Soviet Union?

Berlin Airlift

1948-Berlin BlockadeTactic used to overcome a Soviet blockade

West/East GermanySeptember 1949Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany)German Democratic Republic (East Germany)

West GermanyChancellor-German head of stateLed by Konrad AdenauerExperienced an economic miracle after WWII

East GermanyCapital: East BerlinOne party state under Soviet controlEconomic struggles

German UnificationEast and West Germany were unified in 1990

Postwar JapanAllied occupation after surrender

Administered by General Douglas MacArthur

Experienced tremendous economic recovery

US after the WarWorld military presence

Nuclear monopoly until 1949

Economic boomHigh productionHigh consumption

Consumer societyIncrease in workers wagesIncreased creditBuilt-up demand for postwar goods

Household with TV1949-2.3%1962-90%

baby boomOfficial start Jan. 1, 1946

Rise in postwar birth rates in the late 1940s and 1950s

First baby boomer turned 65-Jan 1, 2011

Womens Rights MovementWorked in factories during the war

Served in the military

Discrimination continuedWagesOccupation

National Organization of Women (NOW)-1966

SegregationSeparation, for example, by race

Plessey v. Fergusonseparate but equal

Schools, bathrooms, restaurants, buses

Great Britain/France after the WarLoss of colonial powerDefeat of Axis powers

Created vacuums (voids) around the world

Great Britain

Clement Attlee

Set out to create modern British welfare state

Government provides services and a minimum living standard to all

Declined militarily after WWII

France

Charles de Gaulle

First President of Frances Fifth Republic

Return France to a world power by developing nuclear weapons

Soviet Union after the WarSoviets would not allow Eastern European satellites to gain independence

Joseph StalinPromoted growth of heavy industry over consumer goods after WWII

Manufacture of machines and equipment for factories and mines

Died-1953

1949Arms race1949-Soviets develop nuclear capabilities

US Deterrence PolicyThreat of nuclear attack prevented warThermonuclear weapons

1940-1997-$5.4 Trillion invested

ChinaChinese Nationalists and Communists had been battling sine the 1930s

Mao Zedong and the Peoples Liberation Army take control 1949

What effect did this event have on the United States?

NATONorth Atlantic Treaty OrganizationApril 1949Collective security article was first invoked in 9/11/2001

Red Scare1950sAnti-communist movement led by Senator Joseph McCarthy

Korean WarDivided at the 38th Parallel after WWIICommunist North Koreas attempted take over of South KoreaUN forces led by US push into North KoreaChina sends troops into North Korea

Dwight D. EisenhowerElected 1952Nikita KhrushchevTakes over after Stalin

Soviet leader who built the Berlin Wall

De-StalinizationKhrushchev's policy of undoing his predecessors more ruthless policies

Brown v. Board of Education Topeka (1954)Supreme Court overturns Plessy v. Ferguson

separate but equal is inherently unequal

Many states ignored/fought integrationSouthern ManifestoGeorge Wallace-Univ. of Alabama (1963)

Groundwork for 1950s and 1960s Civil Rights Movement

ResistanceDe Jure- concerning law

De Facto- by practice

President Dwight EisenhowerWhere we have to change the hearts of men we cannot do it by cold lawmaking, but must make these changes by appealing to reason, by prayer, and by constantly working at it through our own efforts.

Civil Rights Movement1955-Emmet Till

1956-Montgomery Bus Boycott

1957Martin Luther King Jr.Federal troops used to desegregate Little Rock Central High SchoolMovement slows because of Cold War focus (Sputnik)

BlocGroup of nations with a common purpose

Warsaw Pact1955Military alliance between the Soviet Union and other Eastern European nations

SEATO1955Alliance designed to prevent spread of Communism in Southeast Asia

CENTO1955Central Treaty OrganizationMiddle East Treaty OrganizationAlliance designed to prevent Soviet expansion in the Middle East

Sputnik I1957First space satelliteUS feared the Soviets were ahead on missile production

Explorer 1

EECCivil Rights Movement1960-Greensboro, NCJohn F. KennedyUS President involved in Cuban missile crisisReal wagesActual purchasing power of incomeFidel CastroCommunist leader of Cuba during the Cuban Missile CrisisBay of PigsUS attempt to overthrow the Cuban governmentBerlin WallBuild to prevent East Germans from defecting to West GermanyCuban Missile Crisis

Martin Luther King Jr

Lyndon B. JohnsonSigned the Civil Rights Act 1964 and CRA 1965Increased troops sent to Vietnam in 1964Domino theoryVietnam WarCounter cultureStudent protestsWere reactions to:Vietnam WarUniversity policies and administrationAlienation of the individual from societyRichard NixonResumed relations with China after Vietnam WarKent State University1970Four students killed by Ohio National Guard during antiwar demonstration