COLD WAR Foreign and domestic tensions and issues

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Text of COLD WAR Foreign and domestic tensions and issues

  • COLD WARForeign and domestic tensions and issues

  • Cold War, 1945-1991A series of conflicts, compromises, and competitions between the capitalist US and the communist Soviet Union to influence other countries into allying with one side or the other

  • Atomic Energy Act, 1946Created the Atomic Energy Commission to oversee nuclear weapons research and to promote peacetime use of atomic energy

  • containmentTrying to restrict the expansion of Soviet communism

  • Truman Doctrine, 1947Policy of supporting people who are resisting attempted conquest by armed minorities or by outside pressures

  • CIACentral Intelligence AgencyCreated in 1947Gathers information secretlyStill active today

  • Marshall Plan, 1948 European Recovery Program in which the US provided billions of dollars in economic aid for Europe to prevent the spread of communism

  • Berlin Airlift, June 1948-May 1949US, England, and France planned to combine their German zonesSU was angry and blocked all entry into BerlinWestern leaders airlifted food and supplies to Berlin for 10 months

  • NATO, 1949North Atlantic Treaty OrganizationMilitary alliance originally formed by democratic nationsNow includes some former Soviet bloc nations

  • China becomes Communist under Mao Zedong in 1949

  • brinksmanshipUsing the threat of massive military retaliationgoing to the brink of war in order to stop communism from spreading

  • Korean WarUS enters a war in Korea, 1950-1953; country eventually divided along 38th parallel between communist and anti-communist forces

  • U-2 incident, 1960Francis Gary Powers was shot down by the SU while spyingHeightened tensions between the US and SU

  • MeanwhileOn the Home Front

  • House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC)Investigated people who might be against the government, particularly communists

  • Hollywood Ten, 1947People in Hollywood who refused to testify before HUAC and were jailed and later blacklisted

  • Internal Security Act, 1950Communist Party members must register with the governmentStrict controls on immigrants suspected of being communists

  • Joseph McCarthy, 1950Claimed he had a list of supposed communists in the State DepartmentRuined many careers

  • Hydrogen bomb1952 (US), 1953 (SU)Much more powerful than the atomic bombFirst test vaporized an entire island

  • Alger Hiss, Julius and Ethel RosenbergHissjailed in 1950 for supposedly being a Soviet spy and lying under oathRosenbergsexecuted in 1953 for selling secrets to the Soviets

  • Sputnik, 1957First satellite launched into spaceBy Soviet UnionHeightened the space race

  • National Defense Education ActPassed in 1958 in response to SputnikMoney for training in science, math and languages

  • NASAEstablished in 1958National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  • Other notable Cold War eventsCastro comes to power in Cuba, 1959Bay of Pigs invasion, 1961Berlin Wall, 1961-1989Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962Strategic Arms Limitation Talks, 1972Glasnost, perestroika; tear down this wallReagan to GorbachevFall of Berlin Wall, 1989; Fall of the Soviet Union, 1991