Cold WarThe Early Years
The Ideological StruggleSoviet & Eastern Bloc Nations [Iron Curtain]US & the Western DemocraciesGOAL spread world-wide CommunismGOAL Containment of Communism & the eventual collapse of the Communist world. METHODS:Espionage [KGB vs. CIA]Arms Race [nuclear escalation]Ideological Competition Economic Aid
Cold War Strategies
Post-War GermanyGermany was divided among the allies. Divided into two pieces, Eastern Germany (Communist) & West Germany (Democracy)
The world became divided into two camps, democracies versus communist nations (Bi-polar)Non-aligned Nations (Egypt, India) tried to play both sides off each otherNon-aligned nations were usually in the Third World former colonies
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (1949)United StatesBelgiumBritainCanadaDenmarkFranceIcelandItalyLuxemburgNetherlandsNorwayPortugal1952: Greece & Turkey1955: West Germany1983: Spain
Warsaw Pact (1955)U. S. S. R.AlbaniaBulgariaCzechoslovakiaEast GermanyHungaryPolandRomania
The Iron CurtainFrom Stettin in the Balkans, to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lies the ancient capitals of Central and Eastern Europe. -- Sir Winston Churchill, 1946
Truman Doctrine The U. S. will support people who are resisting Communist takeovers [ aka: We will help you fight the dirty red commies]We must assist free peoples to work out their own destinies in their own way.
Domino TheoryTheory of Democratic GovernmentsBelieved if one nation became Communist, its neighbors would follow.
Marshall Plan European Recovery Program.The U. S. should provide aid to all European nations that need it. This move is not against any country or doctrine, but against hunger, poverty, desperation, and chaos. ACTUALLYTO STOP THE SPREAD OF COMMUNISM!$12.5 billion of US aid to Western Europe extended to Eastern Europe & USSR, [but this was rejected].
Berlin CrisisFirst Showdown of the Cold WarUSSR tries to cut off all of Berlin from the WestUS and British planes drop supplies to WestThe Soviets backed down1961 - the Soviets began building a wall to prevent migration to the West. Berlin was split in two.
Berlin Blockade & Airlift (1948-49)
The Arms RaceThe Soviet Union exploded its first A-bomb in 1949.Now there were two nuclear superpowers!
During the Cold War, the U.S.S.R and the U.S. followed a policy of Mutual Assured Destruction (MAD).The U.S. and U.S.S.R had enough nuclear bombs to destroy the world about 400 times. I guess it made sense at the time.MAD = military strategy in which a full scale use of nuclear weapons by one of the opposing powers would result in the destruction of both.
Premier Nikita KhrushchevAbout the capitalist states, it doesn't depend on you whether we (Soviet Union) exist. If you don't like us, don't accept our invitations, and don't invite us to come to see you. Whether you like it our not, history is on our side. We will bury you. -- 1956De-Stalinization Program
Maos Revolution: 1949Who lost China? A 2nd } Power!
The Korean War: A Police Action (1950-1953)Syngman RheeKim Il-SungDomino Theory
Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty
The Hungarian Uprising: 1956Imre Nagy, Hungarian Prime MinisterPromised free elections.This could lead to the end of communist rule in Hungary.
Sputnik I (1957)The Russians have beaten America in spacethey have the technological edge!
- Nixon-Khrushchev Kitchen Debate (1959)Cold War ---> Tensions
U-2 Spy Incident (1960)Col. Francis Gary Powers plane was shot down over Soviet airspace.
Paris, 1961Khrushchev & JFK meet to discuss Berlin and nuclear proliferation. Khrushchev thinks that JFK is young, inexperienced, and can be controlled.
The Berlin Wall Goes Up (1961)Checkpoint Charlie
Ich bin ein Berliner! (1963)President Kennedy tells Berliners that the West is with them!
Castros Cuba1950s- Cuba ruled by an unpopular dictator, Batista- who the U.S. supported.Cuban resentment led to an overthrow led by Fidel Castro.
Castro ruled Cuba harshly:Suspended electionsJailed/Executed opponentsCensored pressTook over U.S. sugar mills located in Cuba. U.S. ordered an embargo on all trade with Cuba. Castro asks for assistance for Soviet Union.
Khrushchev Embraces Castro, 1961
1960- CIA begins to train anti-Castro Cuban exiles. April 1961- Exiles invade Cuba landing at the Bay of Pigs hoping that fellow Cubans join them in regaining Cuba.
Bay of Pigs (1961)What do you think happens?
President Kennedy withdraws air support for the CubansBelieves the U.S. is becoming too involved.Why would this matter?Was if fair to do this to the exiles without their knowledge?Castros forces crushed the invaders within two days.
U.S. failure at the Bay of Pigs convinced Khrushchev that the U.S. could not resist Soviet expansion into Latin America. July 1962- Khrushchev began to secretly build missiles sites in Cuba. October 1962- U.S. spy planes discovered 42 missile sites in Cuba. Just 90 miles south of Florida
Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)
Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)We went eyeball-to-eyeball with the Russians, and the other man blinked!
Kennedy demands the removal of the Soviet Missiles.He demands a naval blockage of Cuba to prevent more installing of Soviet missiles.
Meanwhile in the country of Turkey, right outside of the Soviet Union, the United States had missiles pointed toward Moscow, the Soviets capital. This was the Soviets way to play the Cold War fair. October 22nd-Preparations were made for an air attack on the missile sites. How do you think the American people felt during this crisis?
On October 26th Kennedy received a message from the Soviet Premier Khrushchev implying that the Soviets would remove the missile bases as long as America didnt invade Cuba. President Kennedy agreed. Was it fair for the Soviets to have to remove their nuclear weapons, but the United States didnt have to remove their missiles from Turkey?
Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)
Vietnam War: 1965-1973
Prague Spring (1968)Former Czech President, Alexander DubekCommunism with a human face!
Prague Spring Dashed!Dissidents/playwrights arrested [like Vaclav Havelfuture president of a free Czech Republic].
The End of EmpiresEurope is in a big debt!Most former colonies establish independence. For example:India 1947 Palestine 1948 Kenya Mau Mau uprising - 1955
**************Nuclear Bomb: Library of Congress Reproduction Number: LC-USZC2-727 (color film copy transparency) Call Number: Unprocessed [item] [P&P]
Attack drill: Http://www.reaganfoundation.org/reagan/photographs/photos_rr.asp?ItemID=48****************************