Cold War Unfolds Let The War Begin! The Cold War gets HOT!!!!!!!!!!

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  • Cold War Unfolds Let The War Begin! The Cold War gets HOT!!!!!!!!!!
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  • Two Sides Face Off East v. West NATO v. Warsaw Battle of Ideas Democracy v. Communism The US sees this as a global conflict just as the two world wars Mostly non-violent conflict - Shooting wars do break-out in some areas Berlin Wall People were feeing the east to get to the more prosperous west As a result East Germany builds a wall to seal off the west Berlin Wall was a massive barrier, topped with barbed wire and patrolled by guards showed that workers had to keep people from fleeing In Poland and Czechoslovakia uprisings broke out against Communism and attempting broke out against Communism and attempting to break from the Warsaw Pact to break from the Warsaw Pact Soviets send in the Red Army to stop the uprisings and kill the leaders uprisings and kill the leaders
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  • Nuclear Weapons Threaten the World Arms Race In order to deter the opposite side from using nuclear force both sides attempted to match the other resulting in a Balance of Terror Critics argued both sides could destroy the world several times over SALT Agreements to limit nuclear weapons nuclear weapons SDI Strategic Defense Initiative Also called Star Wars Shield in outer space designed to shoot down nukes from the Soviet Union Dtente Relaxation of tensions Restrain the Soviets through diplomatic relations rather than military means relations rather than military means Nuclear Non-Proliferations Treaty Agreed not to develop nuclear weapons not to develop nuclear weapons
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  • Korean War Background After WWII Korea is divided 38 th Parallel is dividing point North Korea Soviet Occupied Kim Il-sung Leader of the North South Korea US Occupied Syngman Rhee Leader of the South
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  • Communist Invasion North Korean Army with Soviet Tanks invade the South Control all of Korea except Pusan
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  • American and UN Response Why get involved? Not strategically essential If we dont Appear soft on Communism UN Response UN gets member countries to donate money, supplies, and troops to keep South Korea free from the North Result: South Korea remains free of Communist control Led by Gen. Douglas MacArthur Defended Pusan Attacked at Inchon Why? Cut supply lines US Chase N. Koreans to Yalu River At Chinese Border MacArthur follows into China against orders
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  • Chinese Response Afraid of a US Air Base in N. Korea Result: China sends troops into N. Korea because they are afraid of the gains we made Drive US led forces back to the 38 th Parallel
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  • Firing of MacArthur Disobeyed orders Pursued Chinese into China Replaced by Matthew Ridgeway
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  • Results and Legacy 1953 Peace Treaty 38 th Parallel continues to be the dividing line Korea remains divided 2.5 mile buffer demilitarized zone No troops or weapons Symbol of the Cold War 4 million deaths 55,000 US 1 st war US did not win
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  • History and Background of Vietnam Chinese Control of Vietnam French Interest and Control - 1700s Trade Territory France Conquered Vietnam - 1883 Combined Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam to form French Indochina Impose harsh taxes and limit political freedoms Nationalists - Vietnamese who have pride in their own culture begin to fight back Tired of occupation and colonialism
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  • Japans Control of Indochina Japan drives out France (WWII) - 1930s Ho Chi Minh refuses Japanese Rule League for the Independence of Vietnam (Vietminh) organized by Minh Japan surrenders to the allies - 1945 Who now controls Vietnam? Minh declares independence of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam - Sept.2 1945
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  • French Control of Vietnam, Again! France wants to control Vietnam - Again Eisenhower funds France - Fear of the Domino Theory Vietnamese fight back using Guerrilla Warfare - Battle of Diem Bien Phu - 1954 Vietnam defeats 12,000 French (7000 French Casualties) May 7, 1954 France Surrenders Shows Vietnamese wouldnt stop fighting
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  • Geneva Conference Major world powers meet to decide the future of Vietnam (Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, US, USSR, China, etc) Split Vietnam into a north and south Have elections in 1956 to reunite under 1 government Never Takes place
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  • South Vietnam President Ngo Dinh Diem Dishonest and Brutal - Imprisoned Critics, placed family members in government positions, isolated peasants from communism, Catholic - said everyone must follow (Buddhist country), protests drew Dishonest and Brutal - Imprisoned Critics, placed family members in government positions, isolated peasants from communism, Catholic - said everyone must follow (Buddhist country), protests drew national attention national attention US supported the South US supported the South
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  • North Vietnam Leader Ho Chi Minh Made up of Nationalists and Communists Favored social reforms and land redistribution Opposed by US National Liberation Front (NLF) and the Vietcong National Liberation Front (NLF) and the Vietcong NLF - Formed by Communists and peasants NLF - Formed by Communists and peasants
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  • Gulf of Tonkin Incident Attack on the USS Maddox - A spy ship Excuse to deepen US involvement Following Attack US troops arrive in Vietnam
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  • Legacy of the War Longest and least successful in US history Counting the Costs US-58,000 dead; 300,000 wounded; $150 bil. Vietnamese More bombs than the Axis powers during WWII, countless civilians, and destroyed the country SE Asia After the War 1 reason for involvement was the Domino Theory Laos and Cambodia fall Cambodia falls to the Khmer Rouge lead by Pol Pot Kills as many as 1.5 million Cambodians
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  • Legacy cont. US After the War Many call for a reassessment of Americas global mission could we defend the world from Communist forces everywhere? Veterans came home to less than a heros welcome No Parades Spat upon, insulted, baby-killers etc Lack of jobs and training Little counseling 1982 the Vietnam Veterans Memorial was completed
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  • Afghanistan Dtente ends when the Soviets invade Afghanistan Considered Soviet Vietnam Long unsuccessful war US supports Afghan troops with weapons and money War provokes a moral crisis in Soviet Union Considered the Soviet Vietnam
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  • Cuba Communist takeover led by Castro Cuban Missile Crisis US Blockade Trade Embargo