Colorectal Cancer & Screening

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Colorectal Cancer & Screening. Sept 2013. Sometimes there are things that may be hard to talk about. But not talking about them is even harder. What is Colorectal Cancer?. Cancer that develops on the inner wall of the colon and rectum (large bowel or large intestine) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript

Breast Cancer

Colorectal Cancer & ScreeningSept 2013

1NOTE:This presentation will take 30-60 minutes if you use all the slides. This is the main message: Men and women age 50 and over should get regular screening for colorectal cancer.

There are 2 brochures that can be given out for this presentation: Common Questions, and Instructions for the Fecal Immunochemical Test.

Sometimes there are things that may be hard to talk aboutBut not talking about them is even harder

Today were going to talk about a type of cancer called colorectal cancer. Sometimes, it is called colon, rectal or bowel cancer. While it may be hard or embarrassing for some of you to talk about colorectal cancer, since we dont often talk about that part of our bodies with others, not talking about it can cost lives. Many people are dying needlessly of colorectal cancer as it is often found too late for effective treatment. Yet, there are effective ways (through screening) to find colorectal cancer early before there are any symptoms and when treatment is very effective.

Some of you may know friends or family members who have been diagnosed or died from this type of cancer. This presentation will help you to learn more about this common cancer and how it can be prevented or caught and treated early through screening.

(Presenters may ask the group if anyone has friends or family with colorectal cancer).

This presentation will explain three things:1) The basic facts about colorectal cancer2) The main way to reduce your risk3) The best way to prevent or detect colorectal cancer early

Please share this information. If you like, take extra brochures and information sheets for your friends and family.

What is Colorectal Cancer?Cancer that develops on the inner wall of the colon and rectum (large bowel or large intestine)As cancers of the colon and rectum are very similar, they are called Colorectal Cancer

NOTE: In the anatomical picture, the colon and rectum are in pink color.What are Polyps? Pre-cancerous polyps are small growths that may be found on the inner wall of the colon & rectumPolyps can develop and exist over long periods of time without any signs or symptoms before becoming cancer

Colon This picture shows what a polyp looks like.Colorectal Cancer FactsIn 2013, 2,010 new cases of colorectal cancer are expected in AlbertaColorectal cancer will develop in 1 in 13 men and 1 in 16 women throughout their lifetime

5In Alberta, colorectal cancer is the 2nd most commonly diagnosed cancer in men and 3rd most commonly diagnosed cancer in women

Colorectal cancer will develop in 1 in 13 men and 1 in 16 women throughout their lifetime. This means that if there are 13 men in the room it doesn't necessarily mean that 1 in 13 of them will develop colorectal cancer. It means, that if all 13 of those men live until at least 85 years old, then 1 out of 13 will develop colorectal cancer.

References: Canadian Cancer Societys Advisory Committee on Cancer Statistics. Canadian Cancer Statistics 2013. Toronto, ON: Canadian Cancer Society; 2013. Cancer Surveillance: 2010 Report on Cancer Statistics in Alberta. Edmonton: Cancer Care, Alberta Health Services, 2012. More Colorectal Cancer Facts In 2013, 700 colorectal cancer deaths are expected in AlbertaColorectal cancer is the 2nd leading cause of death from cancer in Alberta for both men and women combined

6The leading cause of cancer deaths in Alberta men is lung cancer. Next is prostate, followed by colorectal cancer.

For Alberta women, the leading cause of cancer deaths is lung cancer. Next is breast, followed by colorectal cancer.

So, colorectal cancer is the 2nd leading cause of cancer deaths for both men and women are combined.

Reference: Canadian Cancer Societys Steering Committee on Cancer Statistics. Canadian Cancer Statistics 2013.Toronto, ON: Canadian Cancer Society; 2013.

What Causes Colorectal Cancer?There is no single cause All men and women 50 and over are at higher riskSome people are more at risk than others based on personal and family history

NOTE: Encourage people to talk to their healthcare provider about their risk of colorectal cancer.Risk Factors You Cant ChangeAgeFamily history EthnicityPersonal cancer history Inflammatory Bowel Disease

NOTES:Age approximately 90% of cases are in adults 50 and over

Family history includes colorectal cancer, Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP), Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colorectal Cancer (HNPCC). The more relatives affected, the higher the risk.

Ethnicity African Americans have been found to have a higher incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer than other racial groups in the U.S. and the reason for this is not yet understood. Jews of Eastern European descent (Ashkenazi Jews) have one of the highest risks of colorectal cancer and several gene mutations have been found to increase their risk of colorectal cancer.

Personal cancer history includes colorectal, small bowels/intestines, uterus, ovaries or breast

Inflammatory Bowel Disease includes ulcerative colitis and Crohns diseaseRisk Factors You Can ChangeFood choicesPhysical activityBody weightSmoking

9There are some things we can do to lower our risk of colorectal cancer. Many of these things we can do also help prevent or decrease our risk for other chronic diseases (heart disease, diabetes, osteoporosis, etc).

Ways to Decrease Your RiskGet screened regularly! Eat more fibre (whole grains, beans, lentils, peas, bran) Eat less saturated fats (red meat, whole milk dairy products)Eat lots of vegetables and fruit

10It is important to be screened regularly. Talk to your doctor or nurse about what type of colorectal cancer screening is best for you.

There is a strong link between the food you choose to eat and colorectal cancer risk.

Good sources of fibre include wholegrain products, fruit, vegetables, nuts/seeds, and legumes. Examples include:Wholegrain products: oats, rye, barley, bran, quinoa, wholemeal bread, wholewheat pasta, wholegrain breakfast cereals (porridge oats, All-Bran, Weetabix, etc)Fruit: oranges, prunes, berries, bananas, apples, pears, avocadoVegetable: broccoli, carrots, sweet potatoes, green beansNuts/Seeds: flax seed, almond, pecans, pistaciosLegumes (also called pulses): beans, lentils, and peas

A diet high in red meats (beef, lamb, liver, etc) and processed meats (hot dogs, deli meats, etc) can increase your risk of colorectal cancer. Limit intake of red meat (a main source of saturated fats) to no more than 18 ounces a week (about 3 small steaks). This is a touchy subject for Albertans! Meats are an important source of protein and vitamin B12. But studies show that people who eat a lot of red meat tend to eat less plant-based food and therefore have less protection against cancer.

Include 7 10 servings of vegetables and fruit in your daily diet. Eat at least one dark green and one orange vegetable each day. Examples include broccoli, romaine lettuce, spinach, carrots, sweet potatoes, pumpkins/squash, turnips, garlic, oranges and berries.More Ways to Reduce Your RiskLower alcohol intake Add exercise into your daily life Stay at a healthy body weightStop smoking and snuff/chew and avoid second hand smoke

11Lower alcohol consumption to moderate or low levels. If alcohol is consumed, amount should be limited to no more than two drinks a day for men and one a day for women. Pregnant women should not consume any alcohol.

Try incorporating regular physical activity into your daily life. It is recommended that you aim for 2 and a hours of moderate to vigorous activity per week. Moderate exercise can mean anything from a brisk walk to playing outside with grandchildren.

Stay at a healthy weight.

Stop smoking and using snuff/chew.

NOTE:Tobacco also comes in smokeless (spit) form that is placed inside the mouth and is also harmful: Snuff ground-up moist tobacco usually placed between the bottom lip and gum (also known as dipping). Chew shredded tobacco leaves placed between gum and cheek (also called a wad). Plug shredded tobacco leaves pressed into a hard block and placed between gum and cheek.

What about Symptoms? Approximately 90% of people who get colorectal cancer are 50 and over with no symptoms

12Colorectal cancer in the early stages usually does not have any symptoms. When found early, 90% of cases can be prevented or treated successfully.If symptoms do occurSymptoms may include:Changes in bowel movements (constipation, diarrhea)Narrow or bloody stoolsAbdominal crampsUnexplained weight lossConstant tiredness/weaknessSee your doctor or nurse right away if you have symptoms!

If there are symptoms present, usually the colorectal cancer is in a later stage.

Important message: Do not wait for symptoms to appear before talking to your healthcare provider about colorectal cancer and screening. Everyone 50 and over should be screened regularly for colorectal cancer.Why is Finding Colorectal Cancer Early Important?If found early through regular screening, the success rate for treatment is greater than 90%If found at a later stage when there are symptoms, only about 10% of people survive (to 5 years)Screening can also prevent colorectal cancer by removing pre-cancerous polyps

Screening can help detect polyps, which are pre-cancerous cells. Polyps sometimes bleed into the colon traces of blood may be found in the stool that you cant see with your own eyes.

The most common screening tests in Alberta are:Fecal Immunochemical Test, also called FIT this test is done in your own home and can help find blood in the stool that you cant see. Colonoscopy this is done if you have an abnormal FIT or if you are at