1. Communication Skills Week 3Barriers of effective communication Physical Semantic Psychological What is an organization? Goals and kinds of organization BY WARDAH AZHAR
2. Psychological Barriers Every person has his/her own way to look at the world, at people, at events and situations. A way of thinking of a person many times takes a shape of strong base of communication. No two persons possess accurately similar frames of reference. Following are the psychological barriers
3. Cont (a) Unjust Assumptions: It creates a lot of misunderstanding. A manager, for example, incorrectly assumes that the subordinates understand the technical terms he adopts to give the instructions. (b) Barrier of Knowing it All: Certain people think that they know everything about a subject. Usually they are not prepared to accept that they could be mistaken. Many make the generalized statements like women can not become superior to men or insincerity is the base of business. An attitude of know it all is an outcome of biased approach.
4. Cont (c) Snap Reactions: Some listeners tend to pass remarks or criticize the communicator even though his communication is not completed. Hurried interpretations are not needed. Audience needs to be patient enough to let the communicator finish his speech. (d) Apathetic Listener: One who is psychologically dead and indifferent to speaker. Receivers apathy is an intolerable condition, when the communicator tries to carry out effective communication. (e) Sophisticated Role: The receiver is not willing to learn from the communicator. That means he/she is un-teachable. In such situations the communicator should try to create right impact.
5. Cont (f) Defensiveness: Humans always tries to justify themselves. they think that admitting the mistake means a loss of face. Therefore, they tends to rationalize the mistake that they commit. This type of attitude of the communicator is a great hindrance in the effective communication. (g) Fear: A fear gives rise to slow and narrow thinking. It is clearly destructive to communication. So the primary objective must be to eliminate fear.
6. Semantic Barriers: Connotation: meanings of words Choose the correct and precise word depending on context and the receivers felicity in the use of language. Fluency: Communicating with someone whose native language is not the same as yours may present barriers in the form of inappropriate or incorrect word choice
7. Cont Jargon or Slang: Professionals often use industry jargon to communicate, and that jargon is all but foreign to those outside the industry. High- or Low-Level Vocabulary: Even when people share a native language, vocabulary differences can be vast. Someone with a large vocabulary may choose to say, "He is certainly loquacious" rather than "He talks a lot." People who dont know the words meaning may feel left out or ignorant and cease communication altogether
8. Environmental and Physical barriers: (a) Time adopt appropriate fast channels of communication (b) Space maintain the distance in the communication exercise as determined by the situation (c) Place Avoid overcrowded incommodious and ill-lit, ill- ventilated places to achieve effective communication (d) Medium Choose the appropriate medium oral / written (sign (audio/visual) medium
9. WHAT IS AN ORGANIZATION?Definition: Social entity Goal directed Designed as deliberately structured and coordinated activity systems Linked to the external environment.
10. Organization A social unit of people, systematically structured and managed to meet a need or to pursue collective goals on a continuing basis. All organizations have a management structure that determines relationships between functions and positions, and subdivides and delegates roles, responsibilities, and authority to carry out defined tasks. Organizations are open systems in that they affect and are affected by the environment beyond their boundaries.
11. GOALS OF ORGANIZATIONThose ends that an organization seeks to achieve by its existence andoperation.Goals are predetermined and describe future results toward which presentefforts are directed.FORMAL GOALS INFORMAL GOALS reflect the actual intention are the general aims of an of an organization. They organization as expressed in describe the concrete steps the corporate charter, to be taken to achieve the annual reports, public organizations purpose. statements and mission They often dont statements. Their purpose is correspond with official to give the organization a goals. favorable public image, provide legitimacy, and justify its activities.
12. Kinds of organization Organizations are basically classified on the basis of relationships.Formal organization Informal organization Formal Organization - This is one It refers to a network of personal which refers to a structure of well and social relationships which defined jobs each bearing a spontaneously originates within the measure of authority and formal set up. Informal responsibility. It is a conscious organizations develop relationships determination by which people which are built on likes, dislikes, accomplish goals by adhering to feelings and emotions. Therefore, the norms laid down by the the network of social groups based structure. This kind of on friendships can be called as organization is an arbitrary set up informal organizations. There is no conscious effort made to have in which each person is informal organization. It emerges responsible for his performance. from the formal organization and it Formal organization has a formal is not based on any rules and set up to achieve pre- determined regulations as in case of formal goals. organization.