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Communism Spreads in East Asia China Korea Vietnam

Communism Spreads in East Asia€¦ · Communism Spreads in East Asia China Korea Vietnam. China’s Communist Revolution •After WWII, Mao (communist) resumed civil war against

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Page 1: Communism Spreads in East Asia€¦ · Communism Spreads in East Asia China Korea Vietnam. China’s Communist Revolution •After WWII, Mao (communist) resumed civil war against

Communism Spreads in East AsiaChina

Korea

Vietnam

Page 2: Communism Spreads in East Asia€¦ · Communism Spreads in East Asia China Korea Vietnam. China’s Communist Revolution •After WWII, Mao (communist) resumed civil war against

China’s Communist Revolution• After WWII, Mao

(communist) resumed civil war against the Chiang Kai-shek aka Jiang Jieshi (nationalists) due to his weak and corrupt leadership

• Mao wins▫ People’s Republic of

China▫ Communist▫ Supported by Soviet

Union• Nationalists fled to

Taiwan▫ Supported by USA▫ Considered breakaway

province by mainland China

Page 3: Communism Spreads in East Asia€¦ · Communism Spreads in East Asia China Korea Vietnam. China’s Communist Revolution •After WWII, Mao (communist) resumed civil war against

Why Mao Won?

• Support of peasants

▫ Redistributed land to peasants

▫ Ended oppression by landlords

• Nationalists brought economic hardships, government corruption, reliance on West

• Won railroads and captured city by city with help from peasants

Page 4: Communism Spreads in East Asia€¦ · Communism Spreads in East Asia China Korea Vietnam. China’s Communist Revolution •After WWII, Mao (communist) resumed civil war against

Mao’s Totalitarian State

• One party• No religion:

▫ discouraged practice of Buddhism & Confucianism

• Government control of landlords and businesses• Labor camps• Killed opposition• With Soviet help, build infrastructure• Collectivization: forced agricultural land and

labor to increase productivity• Allied with the SU in 1950s

Page 5: Communism Spreads in East Asia€¦ · Communism Spreads in East Asia China Korea Vietnam. China’s Communist Revolution •After WWII, Mao (communist) resumed civil war against

Great Leap Forward

• People to make superhuman effort to increase farm and industrial output

• Communes: several villages for agriculture and industry

• Epic Fail: low quality, useless goods, food shortages▫ Famine: 2 years= 55

million died• Mao reduces size of

communes

Page 6: Communism Spreads in East Asia€¦ · Communism Spreads in East Asia China Korea Vietnam. China’s Communist Revolution •After WWII, Mao (communist) resumed civil war against

China’s Cultural

Revolution• Goal: Free China of bourgeois

(elite/upperclass) tendencies▫ Red Guards (Mao’s “Gestapo”)

beat and killed bourgeois▫ Skilled workers and managers

were forced to leave their jobs and do manual labor, some in labor camps

▫ Schools and factories closed▫ Economy slowed and civil war

loomed▫ Mao backed off the revolution

and restored order

A propaganda report emphasizes the effect of brainwashing and the cult of personality of Mao Zedong in communist China.

Page 7: Communism Spreads in East Asia€¦ · Communism Spreads in East Asia China Korea Vietnam. China’s Communist Revolution •After WWII, Mao (communist) resumed civil war against

China: The Wild CardDespite sending economic aid, China &

Soviet Union weren’t allies due to border and ideological disputes▫ Soviets end up withdrawing aid &

advisors in 1960

• USA support Kai-shek & nationalist movement to Taiwan▫ Refused to acknowledge China for fear

of threat of communism spreading throughout all of Asia

▫ BUT, strategic to improve relations with China against the Soviet Union

▫ 1971, USA allowed People’s Republic of China (communist China) to replace Taiwan in the UN

▫ 1972: President Nixon visits Beijing to open trade relations with China

▫ 1979: US set up formal diplomatic relationship

Page 9: Communism Spreads in East Asia€¦ · Communism Spreads in East Asia China Korea Vietnam. China’s Communist Revolution •After WWII, Mao (communist) resumed civil war against

Korea:

WWII &

Cold War

• Prior to WWII, Korea was occupied by Japan• After WWII, Soviet Union and USA split Korea into North &

South along the 38th Parallel north▫ North Korea=communist, supported by Soviets; ruled by Kim Il Sung▫ South Korea=democratic, supported by USA; ruled by Syngman Rhee

Page 10: Communism Spreads in East Asia€¦ · Communism Spreads in East Asia China Korea Vietnam. China’s Communist Revolution •After WWII, Mao (communist) resumed civil war against

North Korea begins

war

• North wants control of whole peninsula & attacks the South-1950

• United Nations, headed by USA & General MacArthur, sent troops to help South▫ NOTE: MacArthur is eventually

fired for wanted to invade China (allies with Soviets)

• North takes most of peninsula, but stopped at Pusan

Page 11: Communism Spreads in East Asia€¦ · Communism Spreads in East Asia China Korea Vietnam. China’s Communist Revolution •After WWII, Mao (communist) resumed civil war against

• Inch’on: UN troops landed behind enemy lines, captured railroads, cutting North’s troops off from North and supply lines▫ Led to North

surrender in South• UN moved North to

Yalu River (border of Korea & China)▫ Mao, worried about

USA/UN, sent Chinese troops to border

▫ With help from Chinese, North pushes South back to 38th

Parallel

Page 12: Communism Spreads in East Asia€¦ · Communism Spreads in East Asia China Korea Vietnam. China’s Communist Revolution •After WWII, Mao (communist) resumed civil war against

Stalemate

• An Armistice will be signed -1953- due to stalemate

• Troops will dig in and still today occupy the DMZ-demilitarized zone: area with no military forces▫ Along 38th Parallel

• NO peace treaty has ever been reached

• 2013: North Korea claims it is breaking armistice with nuclear buildup and testing

Page 13: Communism Spreads in East Asia€¦ · Communism Spreads in East Asia China Korea Vietnam. China’s Communist Revolution •After WWII, Mao (communist) resumed civil war against

Two Koreas• North: communist

▫ Economic decline▫ Inefficient collective farms▫ Build up of nukes▫ Chinese give economic aid▫ Isolated▫ Poor-no electricity▫ Cult of personality around dictator

Page 14: Communism Spreads in East Asia€¦ · Communism Spreads in East Asia China Korea Vietnam. China’s Communist Revolution •After WWII, Mao (communist) resumed civil war against

• South: democratic

▫ Capitalist

▫ Economic boom

▫ Economic & military aid from USA

▫ prosperous

Page 16: Communism Spreads in East Asia€¦ · Communism Spreads in East Asia China Korea Vietnam. China’s Communist Revolution •After WWII, Mao (communist) resumed civil war against

French Lose Indochina

• French Indochina (Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia)▫ Wanted independence after WWII

• Communist Guerrillas: small groups of communist soldiers making raids on French colonists

• Ho Chi Minh: Communist who fought Japanese during WWII then turned on French▫ national hero▫ Uses USA Declaration of

Independence to gain USA support to declare independence from French

Page 17: Communism Spreads in East Asia€¦ · Communism Spreads in East Asia China Korea Vietnam. China’s Communist Revolution •After WWII, Mao (communist) resumed civil war against

• USA backs France due to Ho’s ties to communism▫ Economic aid, no military

aid• Dien Bien Phu: French

lose final battle in 1954 and leave Vietnam

• Geneva Conference: USA, Britain, France vs SU, China, Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam▫ French Indochina becomes

3 independent countries: Laos and Cambodia

become communist▫ Divide Vietnam at 17th

Parallel

Page 18: Communism Spreads in East Asia€¦ · Communism Spreads in East Asia China Korea Vietnam. China’s Communist Revolution •After WWII, Mao (communist) resumed civil war against

Vietnam Divided• North Vietnam

▫ Led by Ho Chi Minh

▫ Communist

▫ Support of Soviet Union & China

Send economic aid, but no troops

• South Vietnam

▫ Led by Ngo Dinh Diem

▫ “Democratic”

Corrupt and brutal

▫ Support of USA

USA’s Domino Theory:

-view that one communist victory would lead to rest of governments in region to fall to communism

-USA wanted to prevent this

Page 19: Communism Spreads in East Asia€¦ · Communism Spreads in East Asia China Korea Vietnam. China’s Communist Revolution •After WWII, Mao (communist) resumed civil war against

Ho Wants Unified Vietnam

• Ho uses his Vietcong to attack the South• President JFK sends military advisors to

train South’s army (Vietminh)

▫ Kennedy’s thoughts on Vietnam “It is their war. They are the ones who have to win it or lose it” Did not like the growing USA involvement

▫ South’s Diem and USA’s JFK both assassinated Wonder if outcome in Vietnam would have

been different?

• USA President LBJ increases USA military presence in Vietnam

Page 20: Communism Spreads in East Asia€¦ · Communism Spreads in East Asia China Korea Vietnam. China’s Communist Revolution •After WWII, Mao (communist) resumed civil war against

Gulf of Tonkin

• South raiding North on islands in Gulf of Tonkin

• North attacks USS Maddox thinking it assisted in raids

• President LBJ tells Congress about attack, but not raids▫ Believing attack on Maddox was unprovoked,

Congress passes Tonkin Resolution President can take all necessary measures to

prevent further aggression in Southeast Asia

• USA begins bombing targets in North (Operation Rolling Thunder)▫ > 2 million USA troops sent to Vietnam

Page 21: Communism Spreads in East Asia€¦ · Communism Spreads in East Asia China Korea Vietnam. China’s Communist Revolution •After WWII, Mao (communist) resumed civil war against

Ground War

• North Guerrillas: knew country better than USA▫ Villages became military

targets▫ Couldn’t trust anyone Aid USA during day,

Vietcong by night

• Ho Chi Minh Trail▫ Supply line running from

north to south through Cambodia & Laos Forced war to expand into

Cambodia & Laos (by President Nixon)

Page 23: Communism Spreads in East Asia€¦ · Communism Spreads in East Asia China Korea Vietnam. China’s Communist Revolution •After WWII, Mao (communist) resumed civil war against

TET Offensive• 1968: North led massive attack in

South on TET-Vietnamese New Year

• Failed with massive casualties• BUT infiltrated South• Turning Point-positive for North

because no part of South was secure from attack

Page 24: Communism Spreads in East Asia€¦ · Communism Spreads in East Asia China Korea Vietnam. China’s Communist Revolution •After WWII, Mao (communist) resumed civil war against

Issues for USA

• Highly televised war that divided the nation

• Civilian casualties, American casualties = extremely high▫ Large numbers of POWs and MIAs

• USA morale was low• Due to tv and no explanation of

civilian deaths (traitors), soldiers not heroes to many people

• Tired of body bags for a war that didn’t involve us

Page 25: Communism Spreads in East Asia€¦ · Communism Spreads in East Asia China Korea Vietnam. China’s Communist Revolution •After WWII, Mao (communist) resumed civil war against

Paris Peace Accord: 1973

• USA involvement in Vietnam-longer than 10 years

• Nixon signs cease-fire• USA withdraws with no victory• Separated North and South Vietnam at

17th Parallel and created a demilitarized zone (DMZ)

• North promised not to invade South• South left to determine own future

• 1975: North conquered South & became communist▫ USA applies embargo

Page 26: Communism Spreads in East Asia€¦ · Communism Spreads in East Asia China Korea Vietnam. China’s Communist Revolution •After WWII, Mao (communist) resumed civil war against

Khmer Rouge

• During Vietnam War, Khmer Rouge (communist guerrillas) overthrew Cambodian government

• Khmer Rouge led by dictator Pol Pot▫ 1/3 of population (1 million)

was slaughtered, starved, or worked to death to rid country of western influence

• After Vietnam unified, took over Cambodia and ended genocide

Page 27: Communism Spreads in East Asia€¦ · Communism Spreads in East Asia China Korea Vietnam. China’s Communist Revolution •After WWII, Mao (communist) resumed civil war against

Did the “dominoes” fall?

• After the USA withdraws from Vietnam, some dominoes did fall-former French Indochina

▫ Vietnam

▫ Laos

▫ Cambodia

• Stopped there; other parts of Southeast Asia remained capitalist and democratic