Comp Arch Ch1 Ch2 Ch3 Ch4

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    William Stallings

    Computer Organizationand Architecture8th Edition

    CHAPTER 1

    INTRODUCTION

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    Architecture and Organization

    Architecture is those attributes visible tothe programmer Instruction set, number of bits used for data

    representation, I/O mechanisms, addressing

    techniques. e.g. Is there a multiply instruction?

    Organization is how features areimplemented Control signals, interfaces, memory technology.

    e.g. Is there a hardware multiply unit or is it done by

    repeated addition?

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    Family Concept

    All Intel x86 family share the same basicarchitecture

    The IBM System/370 family share the samebasic architecture

    This gives code compatibility (at least

    backwards)

    Organization differs between different

    versions

    Architecture and Organization

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    Computer Complex system: How can we

    design/describe it?

    Hierarchical system: A set of interrelated subsystems, each

    subsystem hierarchic in structure until somelowest level of elementary subsystems is

    reached

    At each level of the system, the designer

    is concerned with structureand function.

    Structure and Function

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    Structure and Function

    Structure is the way in whichcomponents relate to each other

    Function is the operation of individualcomponents as part of the structure

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    Function

    General computer

    functions:

    Data processing Data storage

    Data movement

    Control

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    Operations

    Data movement

    Ex., keyboard to

    screen

    Functional View of the Computer

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    Operations

    Storage

    Ex., Internet

    download to disk

    Playing an mp3 file

    stored in memory

    to earphones attached

    to the same PC.

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    Operations

    Processing from/

    to storage

    Any number-crunching

    application that takes

    data from memory and

    stores the result back in

    memory.

    ex., updating bank

    statement

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    Operations

    Processing from

    storage to I/O

    Receiving packets over a

    network interface,

    verifying their CRC,

    then storing them

    in memory.

    ex., printing a bank

    statement

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    Structure

    Four main structural components

    CPU

    Main Memory

    I/O Devices

    System Interconnection

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    Structure

    Four main structural components

    1. Central Processing Unit (CPU)

    Controls the operation of thecomputer and performs its dataprocessing functions; often simplyreferred to as processor.

    2. Main Memory

    Stores data

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    Structure

    Four main structural components3.I/O

    moves data between the computer

    and its external environment.4. System Interconnection

    Some mechanism that provides for

    communication among CPU, mainmemory, and I/O. A common example ofsystem interconnection is a system bus

    consisting of a number of wires to w/c all

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    Structure Top Level

    ComputerMain

    Memory

    InputOutput

    SystemsInterconnection

    Peripherals

    Communicationlines

    CentralProcessing

    Unit

    Computer

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    Structure The CPU

    ComputerArithmetic

    andLogic Unit

    Control

    Unit

    Internal CPUInterconnection

    Registers

    CPU

    I/O

    Memory

    SystemBus

    CPU

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    Structure The Control Unit

    CPU

    ControlMemory

    Control UnitRegisters and

    Decoders

    SequencingLogic

    ControlUnit

    ALU

    Registers

    InternalBus

    Control Unit

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    Computer Evolution andPerformance

    CHAPTER 2

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    Brief History of Computers

    The First Generation: Vacuum Tubes

    ENIAC

    oElectronic Numerical Integrator And Computer

    oWorlds first general purpose electronic digitalcomputer

    o John Mauchly and John Eckert

    o It weighs 30 tons, occupying 1500 square feetof floor space, and containing more than18,000 vacuum tubes.

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    Brief History of Computers

    The First Generation: Vacuum Tubes

    Von Neumann/Turing

    o

    Stored Program concepto Main memory storing programs and data

    o Attributed to John von Neumann who was anENIAC designer and Alan Turing was the one

    who developed the idea

    o Input and output equipment operated bycontrol unit

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    o In 1946, von Neumann and his colleaguesbegan the design of a new stored program

    computer, referred to as the IAS computer.

    o The IAS computer, although not completeduntil 1952, is the prototype of all subsequentgeneral-purpose computers.

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    Brief History of Computers

    IAS computer consist of:oA main memory, which stores both data and

    instructions

    o

    An arithmetic and logic unit (ALU) capable ofoperating on binary data

    oA control unit, which interprets the instructionsin memory and causes them to be executed

    o Input and output (I/O) equipment operated bythe control unit

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    Structure of the IAS computer

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    John von Neumann and the IAS machine, 1952

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    UNIVAC

    o UNIVAC I (Universal Automatic Computer)

    o 1947 -Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corporationo first successful commercial computer. It was

    intended for both scientific and commercialapplications.

    o US Bureau of Census 1950 calculations

    o Became part of Sperry-Rand Corporation

    o Late 1950s -UNIVAC II

    -Faster

    -More memory

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    IBM

    o Punched-card processing equipment

    o 1953 -the 701

    o IBMs first stored program computer

    o Scientific calculations

    o 1955 -the 702

    o Business applications

    o Lead to 700/7000 series

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    Brief History of Computers

    The Second Generation: Transistors

    Transistoro is smaller, cheaper, and dissipates less heat

    than a vacuum tube but can be used in

    the same way as a vacuum tube to constructcomputers

    o invented at Bell Labs in 1947 by WilliamShockley

    o IBM 7000

    o DEC (Digital Equipment Corporation) wasfounded in 957

    o Produced PDP-1 in the same year

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    Brief History of Computers

    The Third Generation: Integrated Circuits

    o A computer is made up of gates, memorycells and interconnections

    o single, self-contained transistor is called a

    discrete component

    o All these can be manufactured either

    separately (discrete components) or on the

    same piece of semiconductor

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    Brief History of Computers

    Generations of Computers

    oVacuum tube -1946-1957

    oTransistor -1958-1964

    oSmall scale integration -1965 on

    -Up to 100 devices on a chip

    oMedium scale integration -to 1971

    -100-3,000 devices on a chip

    oLarge scale integration -1971-1977

    -3,000 -100,000 devices on a chipoVery large scale integration -1978 -1991

    -100,000 -100,000,000 devices on a chip

    oUltra large scale integration1991 -

    -Over 100,000,000 devices on a chip

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    Moores Law

    Increased density of components on chip

    Gordon Mooreco-founder of IntelNumber of transistors on a chip will double everyyear

    Since 1970s development has slowed a little

    Number of transistors doubles every 18 months

    Cost of a chip has remained almost unchanged

    Higher packing density means shorter electrical

    paths, giving higher performanceSmaller size gives increased flexibility

    Reduced power and cooling requirements

    Fewer interconnections increases reliability

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    Growth in CPU Transistor Count

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    IBM 360 Series

    first planned family of computers.

    Similar or identical O/S

    Increasing speed

    Increasing number of I/O ports (i.e. moreterminals)

    Increased memory size

    Increased cost

    Multiplexed switch structure

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    DEC PDP - 8 1964

    First minicomputer (after miniskirt!)

    D