Concentrating Photovoltaics

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    Concentrating PhotovoltaicsConcentrating Photovoltaics

    Andrew BlakersAndrew Blakers

    DirectorDirector

    Centre for Sustainable Energy SystemsCentre for Sustainable Energy Systems

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    Solar energy is specialSolar energy is special

    VastVast100 times larger that all other energy sources100 times larger that all other energy sources

    UbiquitousUbiquitousEveryone has itEveryone has it

    We will never go to war over solar energyWe will never go to war over solar energy

    No use to terroristsNo use to terrorists

    Minimal environmental impactMinimal environmental impact

    InexhaustibleInexhaustibleUses only very common materialsUses only very common materials

    Available over unlimited timescalesAvailable over unlimited timescalesPV and solar thermalPV and solar thermal -- natural partnersnatural partners

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    Sunlight inSunlight in

    AustraliaAustralia

    Supply all of Australias and the worlds electricity

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    Global Photovoltaic SalesGlobal Photovoltaic Sales

    0

    1000

    2000

    3000

    4000

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    6000

    7000

    8000

    9000

    1990

    1991

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    2004

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    2007

    2008

    Shipments(MW

    )

    20 months

    30 months

    Industry doubling times

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    Setting the sceneSetting the scene

    PV doubling sales every 20 monthsPV doubling sales every 20 months

    NonNon--concentratorconcentrator -- dominatesdominatesMicro, small, largeMicro, small, large

    Urban or central power stationUrban or central power stationTracking or nonTracking or non--trackingtracking

    CPV (concentrator PV)CPV (concentrator PV)minor playerminor playerPower tower, dishes, troughs, microPower tower, dishes, troughs, micro

    40% reduction in PV price over 200840% reduction in PV price over 2008--0909

    Price pressure on CPV and CSTPrice pressure on CPV and CST

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    HermannsburgHermannsburg

    Courtesy: Solar Systems

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    PV troughPV trough

    ANUANU

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    Solfocus Concentrix

    Micro concentratorsMicro concentrators

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    CPV~CSTCPV~CST

    ANU

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    PV or thermal power towerPV or thermal power tower

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    CPVCPV

    Sun tracking requiredSun tracking required Only direct beam sunlight can be usedOnly direct beam sunlight can be used

    Direct beam = 50 to 90% of insolationDirect beam = 50 to 90% of insolation

    Specialist solar cells neededSpecialist solar cells needed >100 suns, 2 axis tracking: III>100 suns, 2 axis tracking: III--V tandem cellsV tandem cells

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    Silicon concentrator cellSilicon concentrator cell2020--25% efficient @ 30 suns25% efficient @ 30 suns

    Cell fingers

    Cell tabs

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    GaInP/GaInAs/GeGaInP/GaInAs/Ge 33--junction solar celljunction solar cell

    NREL: 40.8%Fraunhofer ISE: 41.1% @ 454 sunsSpectrolab: 41.6% @ 240 suns

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    Fresnel micro concentratorsFresnel micro concentrators

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    Fresnel micro concentratorsFresnel micro concentrators

    H b id PV/th l t h t tH b id PV/th l t h t t

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    Hybrid PV/thermal trough concentratorHybrid PV/thermal trough concentrator

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    Micro concentratorsMicro concentrators

    PV-thermal hybrid systems on building roofs

    Solar electricity from solar cells

    Solar heat at the point of use

    Solar hot water

    Solar heatingSolar cooling

    70% combined efficiency

    Complete home energy solution

    P t t R i l t d ith PMDS ili

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    Prototype Receiver - encapsulated with PMDS silicone

    -3.00

    -2.50

    -2.00

    -1.50

    -1.00

    -0.50

    0.00

    0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 3.50

    Voltage (V)

    C

    urrent(A)

    19.9%19.9%EfficiencyEfficiency

    0.710.71Fill FactorFill Factor

    2.92.9Open Circuit Voltage (V)Open Circuit Voltage (V)

    1.71.7Short Circuit Current (A)Short Circuit Current (A)

    Performance Characteristics at 20xPerformance Characteristics at 20x

    19.4%19.4%EfficiencyEfficiency

    0.670.67Fill FactorFill Factor

    3.03.0Open Circuit Voltage (V)Open Circuit Voltage (V)

    2.62.6Short Circuit Current (A)Short Circuit Current (A)

    Performance Characteristics at 30xPerformance Characteristics at 30x

    Voltage builds at a rate of ~ 0.6V/cm at MPPVoltage builds at a rate of ~ 0.6V/cm at MPP

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    Liquid Immersed ReceiverLiquid Immersed Receiver

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    TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF IMPROVED SOLARTECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF IMPROVED SOLAR

    PHOTOVOLTAIC LINEAR CONCENTRATORS AND DETERMINATION OF MARKETPHOTOVOLTAIC LINEAR CONCENTRATORS AND DETERMINATION OF MARKETPOTENTIAL IN INDIAPOTENTIAL IN INDIA

    Objectives

    Identification of the markets for Solar Linear Concentrators in India.

    Promoting greater commercial utilization of solar energy in India.

    Determination and stimulation of market acceptance for Solar LinearConcentrators (PV, T, and PV/T).

    Design Solar Linear Concentrators to address market expectations inIndia.

    Training of technical personnel in India to demonstrate and deploy

    SLC.

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    Work plan

    Analysis of energy market in India.

    Survey to identify the technical and economic potential and the social

    acceptance.

    Climate analysis (solar irradiation, temperature, humidity, etc.).

    Components cost analysis in Australia.

    Maximum allowed priceper application, sizeof the system.

    Design of system addressing these criteria (size, cost).

    Training personal: Installation and building of a prototype in AnnaUniversity (India).

    Analysis of field performance in India.

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    Australian Government assistanceAustralian Government assistance

    Australian Research CouncilAustralian Research Council Generic research grants for early stage R&DGeneric research grants for early stage R&D

    ARC Centre for Solar Energy SystemsARC Centre for Solar Energy Systemsconcentrator Si cellsconcentrator Si cells ARC Linkage grants for concentrators: US$0.4MARC Linkage grants for concentrators: US$0.4M

    Asia Pacific Partnership (US$1.4M)Asia Pacific Partnership (US$1.4M)

    Development of hybrid receiversDevelopment of hybrid receiversAISRF (US$0.35M)AISRF (US$0.35M) Concentrators in IndiaConcentrators in India

    China ISL (US$0.3M)China ISL (US$0.3M) ImmersedImmersed--cell concentrator receiverscell concentrator receivers

    Australian Solar InstituteAustralian Solar Institute Foundation grant (US$4.5M) to refurbish labsFoundation grant (US$4.5M) to refurbish labs

    Possibility of future grants in concentratorsPossibility of future grants in concentrators

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    Building R&D expertiseBuilding R&D expertise

    Build critical mass in just a few placesBuild critical mass in just a few places DonDont spread funding too thinlyt spread funding too thinly

    Focus on a few technologiesFocus on a few technologies Build from a core portfolioBuild from a core portfolio

    Import world experts for establishment phaseImport world experts for establishment phase

    Mixture of basic and applied projectsMixture of basic and applied projects Applied projects to have commercial partners to forceApplied projects to have commercial partners to force

    commercial engagementcommercial engagement

    Rewards for successful commercialisationRewards for successful commercialisationMultiple funding sourcesMultiple funding sources Diversity of fundingDiversity of funding

    Diversity ofDiversity of stylesstyles Avoid stop/start fundingAvoid stop/start funding

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    Thank you!

    solar.anu.edu.au