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Conservation Biology Photo from Greg Dimijian. Conservation Biology draws from many disciplines Conservation Biology is grounded in Science

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  • Conservation BiologyPhoto from Greg Dimijian

  • Conservation Biology draws from many disciplinesConservation Biology is grounded in Science

  • Biology Biogeography Genetics Ecology Evolution Fisheries Science Forestry Physiology Wildlife Biology

    Anthropology

    Chemistry

    Economics

    History

    PhilosophyPhysics

    Political Science

    Religion

    Sociology

    Etc.Conservation Biology draws from many disciplinesFor ethical, practical & theoretical considerations

  • Guiding Principles of Conservation Biology(1) Evolution is the basis for understanding biology(2) Biological entities are complex and dynamic(3) Humans are a part of the natural world; our activities range from highly destructive, through benign, to extremely helpful

  • A.D.2000A.D.1000A.D.11000B.C.2000B.C.3000B.C.4000B.C.5000B.C.6000B.C.7000B.C.1+ million years87652143OldStoneAgeNew Stone AgeBronzeAgeIronAgeMiddleAgesModernAgeBlack DeathThe Plague9101112A.D.3000A.D.4000A.D.5000180019001950197520002100?FutureBillions of PeopleImage from the Population Reference Bureau 2006Human PopulationHumans

  • Less Developed RegionsMore Developed RegionsImage from the Population Reference Bureau 2006Billions of PeopleHuman PopulationHumans

  • Image from the Population Reference Bureau 2006Human Population Projected % Population Change, 2005-2050Humans

  • Millions MillionsLess Developed RegionsMore Developed RegionsMaleFemaleMaleFemale80+ 75-79 70-74 65-69 60-64 55-59 50-54 45-49 40-44 35-39 30-34 25-29 20-24 15-19 10-14 5-90-4AgeImage from the Population Reference Bureau 2006Human Population Age distributions, 2005Humans

  • ~ 10,000 new babies will be added to the population during the course of this class periodHuman PopulationPopulation Counter (Clock)Humans

  • Original range map & color-enhanced old photo from Gymnosperm Database; other map from Keddy et al. (2006)Humans are globally significant consumersof natural resources

  • Original range map & color-enhanced old photo from Gymnosperm Database; other map from Keddy et al. (2006)Humans are globally significant consumersof natural resources

  • Image from Vitousek et al. (1997) ScienceBetween one-third and one-half of the land surface has been transformed by human action, i.e., human enterprise (Vitousek et al. 1997, Science)Humans are globally significant consumersof natural resourcesAt least 83% of the Earths land surface has been transformed by human activities (Sanderson et al. 2002, BioScience)

  • Quote from Palumbi (2001) ScienceE.g., consider antibiotic resistance of StaphylococcusPenicillin 1946Methicillin 1961Vancomycin 1986Zyvox 1999Humans are globally important agents of natural selectionHumans are the worlds greatest evolutionary force

  • Newsweek Jan. 12, 2009 Its Survival of the Weak & Scrawny+=Increases in tuskless adults: A Zambian population 2% to 38% A South African population 2% to 98% The Sri Lankan population of Asian elephants 45% to 90%Humans are globally important agents of natural selection

  • Photo from Wikipedia Coined conservation ethicConservation Biologists / Environmentalistsin the U. S.Gifford Pinchot (1865 1946)First Chief of the U.S. Forest Service (1905 1910)Resource Conservation Ethic Utilitarian, anthropocentric natural resource philosophy; the greatest good of the greatest number for the longest time

  • Henry David Thoreau (1817 1862) Walden (1854) John Muir (1838 1914) Founded Sierra Club (1892)Image of Emerson, photos of Thoreau and T. Roosevelt with Muir from WikipediaConservation Biologists / Environmentalistsin the U. S.Romantic-Transcendental Conservation EthicNature has uses other than human economic gain; biophilia Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803 1882) Nature (1836)

  • Photo of Leopold from Oregon State UniversityEvolutionary-Ecological Land Ethic Arose together with the Modern Synthesis and maturing ecological theory; recognizes the complexity, interconnectedness (including humans) and dynamism of NatureConservation Biologists / Environmentalistsin the U. S.Aldo Leopold (1887 1948)A Sand County Almanac (1949)

  • Photo of Carson from WikipediaConservation Biologists / Environmentalistsin the U. S.Rachel Carson (1907 1964)Silent Spring (1962) motivated creation of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

  • Conservation Biology is a crisis disciplinePhoto of Soul from hawaiiconservation.orgConservation Biologists / Environmentalistsin the U. S.Michael SoulCo-founder of the Society for Conservation Biology (1985)

    I purposefully chose a fragile-looking species for the frontispiece of this course, since one main theme of the course is the fragility of Earths biota in the face of human demands and pressures on Earths resources.

    For details concerning the course, examine the syllabus and other materials posted on the course Web site: http://www.kharms.biology.lsu.edu/BIOL4015Fall2012.html*What happened? How might you determine which of the competing explanations (hypotheses) is right?This cartoon and exercise helps illustrate how Science is done, i.e., through the generation (and subsequent testing) of falsifiable (see Karl Popper), mechanistic hypotheses (and predictions that arise from them) to explain natural patterns through natural, causal processes.*Many people from many viewpoints and interest backgrounds need to contribute.

    See Erica Fleishmans essay on pg. 8 of Groom et al. (2006) Principles of Conservation Biology concerning the role of academia in Conservation Biology, especially since that essay could be used to demonstrate the valuable role of academia in any discipline.

    Note: I didnt explicitly list Entomology, Ornithology, Zoology, etc., since the list would simply have grown too long.*

    ****Notes from the Population Reference Bureau:Women worldwide are having fewer children in their lifetimes, from an average of five children born per woman in the 1950s to below three in 2000.All of the most recent projections put forth by the UN assume that levels of childbearing will continue to decline in the next century.*Notes from the Population Reference Bureau:Sex and age distributions show that less developed countries have significantly younger populations than more developed countries.Almost one-third of the population in less developed countries is under age 15. In contrast, less than one-fifth of the population in more developed countries is under 15.Today there are more than 2 billion young people below age 20 in less developed regionsthe age cohort that will soon become the worlds newest group of parents. Young age structures in the less developed countries are due mainly to higher levels of childbearing in recent decades.

    To access the U. C. Census Bureaus Population Counter (a.k.a. Clock): http://www.census.gov/main/www/popclock.html

    Note: Many more than 10,000 people will be born during our 80-minute class, but the net effect (accounting for the people who die during those same 80 minutes) will be an addition of ~10,000 people to the planet. That will keep happening for each 80-minute period of time all semester long

    *Heres one example of impacts of human consumption on the planet: The extraction of timber and other products, along with the conversion of pine ecosystems to plantations, urban areas, and farmland have reduced the extent of the longleaf savannas and woodlands to about 2% of their original range, i.e., we have radically changed the character of the landscape across the southeastern U.S.

    The map from Keddy et al. (2006) shows protected areas harboring remnant populations of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris).Source: Keddy, Paul A. et al. 2006. Patterns of herbaceous plant diversity in southeastern Louisiana pine savannas. Applied Vegetation Science 9:17-26.

    For more info. read Larry Earley (2004) Looking for Longleaf.*Heres one example of impacts of human consumption on the planet: The extraction of timber and other products, along with the conversion of pine ecosystems to plantations, urban areas, and farmland have reduced the extent of the longleaf savannas and woodlands to about 2% of their original range, i.e., we have radically changed the character of the landscape across the southeastern U.S.

    The map from Keddy et al. (2006) shows protected areas harboring remnant populations of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris).Source: Keddy, Paul A. et al. 2006. Patterns of herbaceous plant diversity in southeastern Louisiana pine savannas. Applied Vegetation Science 9:17-26.

    For more info. read Larry Earley (2004) Looking for Longleaf.*Sanderson et al. 2002. The human footprint and the last of the wild. BioScience 52:891-904.

    Vitousek, Peter M., Harold A. Mooney, Jane Lubchenco & Jerry M. Melillo. 1997. Human domination of Earth's ecosystems. Science 277: 494-499.

    *Palumbi, Stephen R. 2001. Humans as the world's greatest evolutionary force. Science 293:1786-1790. *This is an example of direct impacts of humans as agents of natural selection.

    An article from Newsweek (Jan. 12, 2009) on the impact of trophy hunters on antler, horn, and tusk morphology in wild populations illustrates the far-reaching consequences of human-imposed selection on wildlife.

    Note: there are three extant species of elephants around the world: African bush elephant, African forest elephant & Asian elephant (a.k.a. Indian elephant).

    Note: the Sri Lankan population of Asian elephants, females are nearly always tuskless.*U. S. American conservation efforts are traced in our textbook to three philosophical movements:Romantic-Transcendental Conservation EthicResource Conservation EthicEvolutionary-Ecological Land Ethic

    Pinchot viewed resources individually and was primarily concerned with those having immediate utility. He recognized the impact that human consumption was having on resources, so developed his version of the conservation ethic.*U. S. American conservation efforts are traced in our textbook to three philosophical movements:Romantic-Transcendental Conservation EthicResource Conservation EthicEvolutionary-Ecological Land Ethic

    From Wikipedia: In 1837, Emerson befriended Henry David Thoreau. Though they had likely met as early as 1835, in the fall of 1837, Emerson asked Thoreau, Do you keep a journal? The question went on to have a lifelong inspiration for Thoreau.

    Whether or not you have been or ever are inspired to keep a lifelong journal, I have asked you to endeavor to keep a journal of thoughts, ideas, observations and questions relevant to Conservation Biology throughout our semester-long course.

    These philosophers recognized what E. O. Wilson has much more recently referred to as biophilia.*U. S. American conservation efforts are traced in our textbook to three philosophical movements:Romantic-Transcendental Conservation EthicResource Conservation EthicEvolutionary-Ecological Land Ethic*The final 2 slides highlight contributions made by 2 of the types of people we will encounter in this course.

    Her book, Silent Spring (1962), motivated a reversal in federal pesticide policy (e.g., a ban on DDT apparently used in part to combat fire ants) and motivated the grassroots environmental movement of the 1960s and 1970s that led to the creation of the Environmental Protection Agency.*Note: Michael Soul was a Ph.D. student of Paul Ehrlich at Stanford.

    Note: E. O. Wilson describes Conservation Biology as a discipline with a deadline (see Caroline Frasers Rewilding the World). *