Consolidation of Latin America, 1830-1920 Slide 2 I. Independence Movements Independence movements based on class conflicts and the desire for self-government Haiti Originally a French colony called Saint-Dominigue First American territory to free itself African slaves rose up in revolt Toussaint LOeverture led and freed all enslaved Africans Was captured and jailed by the French Haiti went on to declare its independence in 1804 Venezuela Led by a Creole military leader, Simon Bolivar Declared independence in 1811, but would not be completely free until 1821 Slide 3 I. Continued Other Spanish colonies Bolivar teamed up with another Creole military leader, Jose de San Martin Defeated Spanish in many battles freed Panama, Ecuador, Columbia, Peru, Chile, Argentina Mexico Independence movement originally began by lower classes (mestizos, Indians) and opposed by upper classes (creoles) By 1820, Creoles feared liberal changes in Spain, declared independence (1821) in order to prevent loss of land, wealth Brazil Won independence from Portugal with a bloodless revolution Creoles asked the kings son for freedom 8,000 Brazilians signed petition Slide 4 I. Continued LATIN AMERICA PRIOR TO INDEPENDENCE MOVEMENTS LATIN AMERICA AFTER INDEPENDENCE MOVEMENTS Slide 5 II. Problems for New Nations Many questions to deal with - social inequalities, political ideologies, role of the church, regionalism Early independence leaders sought egalitarianism After independence, equality not always the case Many new nations depended on old ways to keep economy going Voting rights only for men Sociedad de castas did not disappear Distinctions bases on race/ethnicity in full force Political fragmentation New nations could be grouped into political blocks Regional rivalries, economic competition, political divisions prevented unity Slide 6 II. Continued Central and South America series of unions that eventually dissolved Geographic barriers, long distances, poor transportation Rise of caudillos Independent leaders who dominated local areas by force Sometimes seized entire national governments Proved to be stabilizing factors when political fragmentation become too much Centralists vs. Federalists Centralists called for strong central government Federalists called for regional governments Liberals vs. Conservatives Liberals called for individual rights, more secular society Conservatives often argued for return of more traditional colonial aspects (social classes, strong central govt) Slide 7 III. Economies of Latin America Support of Britain and U.S. allowed Latin America to enter world market Become dependent on trade with Europe Wars hurt industries of Latin America 1820-1850 economy became stagnant As European economies grew, demands for Latin American goods increased Coffee, beef, minerals, grains The Great Boom 1880-1920 a surge in economic activity Resulted in expansion of cities, government projects Rivalries between nations increased Conflicts over access to resources Slide 8 III. Continued Leaders became more focused on capitalist markets As landowners met demand for goods and materials, peasants lost ground (literally) With flood of immigrants looking for work, new forms of labor and (disguised) servitude developed Slide 9 IV. Social Changes Societal changes slow to come Women gained very little still expected to be wives and mothers only Could not vote, hold public office, become lawyers Did have access to public education Caste-like systems mostly ended, but the stigma of skin color and status remained Limited opportunities for many Indigenous people still lived in poor conditions, with little upward mobility Slide 10 Key Vocabulary Ch. 25 Gran Columbia Caudillos Centralists Federalists Monroe Doctrine Guano Positivism Manifest destiny Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo La Reforma Argentine Republic Fazendas Cientificos Spanish-American War Panama Canal Slide 11 Wrap-up: 5-minute Response Even after independence, how did Europe continue to affect/influence Latin America?