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Constitutionalism & Republics

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Constitutionalism & Republics. APEH, chapter 16. Bellringer. On a separate sheet of paper… Summarize how the Netherland’s gained their independence List four things you know about the development of England. Golden Age of Dutch Republic. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Text of Constitutionalism & Republics

Chapter 15

Constitutionalism & RepublicsAPEH, chapter 16BellringerOn a separate sheet of paperSummarize how the Netherlands gained their independenceList four things you know about the development of EnglandGolden Age of Dutch Republic United Provinces of Netherlands became core of modern Dutch state in 1581Officially recognized in Treaty of Westphalia in 1648Wealthy thanks to Atlantic tradeWith independence came internal dissensionEach province had a stadholder (official) responsible for leading an army and attending States GeneralStates General-weakened during wars with France & England17th Century wars saw economic decline for DutchHow did Dutch spend new wealth?Amsterdam made money from fishing and transporting other countries goodsFluyt-shallow draft ship of large capacityAmsterdam became commercial capital of EuropeBuilt canalsTall, narrow fronted houses along canalsBecame crossroads Manufacturers, shipyard owners, merchants became top societyWealthy burghers began to shed Calvinist ways by end of 17th century

ENGLANDElizabeth died with no heirMary Queen of Scots (Elizabeths cousin) was put to death for trying to overthrow ElizabethHer son was King of Scotland (James I)James I (1603-1625)First Stuart to ruleBelieved firmly in DIVINE RIGHT and ABSOLUTE MONARCHYTrouble with ParliamentCountry in debt, viewed as outsider from Scotland

James IParliament was use to ruling with a balanced polityrefused to give money to JamesPURITANS: strict Calvinists demanding further reform from Church of England, take power away from Church officialsJames I sees Puritans as threatRefuses most requests of reformsGentry: wealthy landowners, also Puritans and large part of House of Commons

ENGLANDCharles I (1625-1649)Popular until marrying a Catholic Princess, Louis XIIIs sister, HenriettaRequested money from ParliamentParliament refuses unless Charles I signs:PETITION OF RIGHT: placed limits on kings powerKing can not levy taxes without consent of ParliamentDirect Challenge to Absolutism

Charles IAt first he acquiesced Taxed without permissionDismisses Parliament when they become outraged1629-1640: Charles ruled without ParliamentGentry opposed attempts to raise taxes without parliament Added MORE ritual to church ceremonies- angering puritans

ENGLAND1640: Charles I in debt thanks to rebellions in ScotlandHas to reconvene Parliament to ask for moneyLong Parliament didnt disband for 20 yearsLimitation on royal authorityTriennial Act- Parliament must meet at least once every three years

ENGLANDPuritans moved to abolish the appointment of bishops in Anglican ChurchCharles I led troops into House of Commons to arrest Puritan leaders for TreasonAlready escapedCharles intentions shown: to take back powerParliament rises up against kingCharles I supported by people1642: Civil War began!

English Civil War (1642-1646)ROYALISTS: nobles who supported kingROUNDHEADS: supporters of ParliamentPuritans (New Model Army) Merchants, some upper classesLed by: OLIVER CROMWELL

ENGLANDRoyalist Army outmatched1646, surrenderPhase Two begins when Charles fleesOliver Cromwell dismisses all Parliament members who disagree with himRump Parliament

ENGLANDRump Parliament tries Charles I for treasonCharles refuses to recognize Parliaments authority1649: Found guilty, Executed in front of own palace

Lord Protector Cromwell (1649-1653)House of Commons outlaws House of Lords and MonarchyEngland becomes a CommonwealthCromwell: Lord Protector of England, Scotland, IrelandDemanded complete obedienceLevellers- demanded freedom of speech, religious toleration, democratic republic

ENGLANDRESTORATIONCromwell dies, son weak leaderParliament reconvenes and vote to bring back monarchy1660: Parliament invites Charles son to be king

Restoration & Charles IICharles II (1660-1685)Supported religious tolerationHabeas Corpus Act of 1679may you have bodyGuarantees right to appear in court to see if accused should be held or released

Charles being presented the first pineapple grown in EnglandColumbian Exchange!ENGLANDJAMES IICharles II brotherHad two protestant daughters, Mary and Anne1688: James and second wife gave birth to a Catholic son! GLORIOUS REVOLUTION1688: Nobles invited James daughter Mary and her husband William of Orange to become King & Queen

Glorious Revolution

William and MaryHad to sign:ENGLISH BILL OF RIGHTS: prevents monarchs from levying taxes without Parliaments consentCreating a:CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY: monarchy limited by law

Response to Revolution Alarmed by revolutionary upheavalsLeviathan (1651) people are guided by animalistic interestsGovernments role is to be a Leviathan- large sea monster- an absolute, sovereign authority needed to suppress evil

Argued against absolute ruleTwo Treatises of GovernmentHumans have inalienable rights- life, liberty, propertyGovernment is meant to protect rightsIf government doesnt live up to obligations the People have the right o rebel

Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679)John Locke (1632-1794)