Text of Constitutionalism. The state must govern according to the laws. People expect the constitution to...
The state must govern according to the laws. People expect the
constitution to protect their rights, liberties, and property.
Const. Monarch = ruler is the head of state but the ultimate power
rests in the electorate. Constitutionalism does not =
Queen Elizabeth is the last Tudor monarch. She has no
Tomb of Mary and Elizabeth
Effigy on top of Elizabeths tomb
Elizabeths cousin King James VI of Scotland becomes King James
I of England James begins the reign of the Stuart dynasty. r.
The Stuart Monarchy
Decline of Absolutism The Stuart kings lacked the political
wisdom of Elizabeth. James I believed in Divine Right of rule.
Wanted total control over the English. This angered the House of
Commons. James mismanagement of $ and poor choices weaken the
respect for the monarchy.
House of Commons wanted a greater say in governing the state.
Charles I ruled without Parliament from 1629-1640. Between 1603 and
1640 arguments arose between the crown and House of Commons over
Problems in the Church of England Many English were attracted
to Calvins values of hard work, thrift, and self-denial. They
wanted to purify the church of Catholic elements. These people were
called Puritans. Puritans saw James I as an enemy as he and his son
Charles I appear to be pro- Catholic.
King James Bible 1611
Charles I r. 1625-1649
King Charles I The people didnt like Charles I. They thought he
was dishonest and treacherous. He ruled without Parliament for 11
years. He had to call them back when he needed money for an army.
As a result: House of Commons passes Triennial Act House of Commons
passes Triennial Act King forced to sign Petition of Right King
forced to sign Petition of Right H of C doesnt trust Charles with
an army H of C doesnt trust Charles with an army
The Petition of Rights, 1628
Petition of Right The king cant imprison subjects without due
cause. He cant levy taxes without consent of Parliament. He cant
house soldiers in private homes without consent. King cant impose
martial law in peace time.
Charles basically ignored the Petition but it was a significant
idea. It set forth the idea that the law was higher than the king.
Contradicted the theories of absolute monarchy. It set forth the
idea that the law was higher than the king. Contradicted the
theories of absolute monarchy. Video\
As a result: Charles I initiated military actions against
Parliament. Cavaliers (royalists) support the king.
Parliamentarians (roundheads) support Parl.
English Civil War 1642-1649 War revolved around the issues of
whether sovereignty should reside in the king or parliament. The
problem is not resolved with the end of the war or the death of the
king. Charles I charged with treason and put on trial. He is found
guilty and beheaded. Never before had a king faced a public trial
and execution. The monarchy was abolished in 1649 and a
commonwealth was proclaimed.
Civil War (1621-1649) Royalists (Cavaliers) Parliamentarians
(Roundheads) a House of Lords a N & W England a Aristocracy a
Large landowners a Church officials a More rural, less prosperous
House of Commons S & E England Puritans Merchants Townspeople
More urban, more prosperous
The execution of King Charles I
Cromwell looks inside the coffin of Charles I
Execution of Charles I Video\King_Charles_is_Beheaded.asf
A commonwealth is a govt without a king whose power rests in
Parliament and a council of state. The army actually controlled the
government and Cromwell controlled the army. The rule of Cromwell
was called the Protectorate but was really a dictatorship.
Cromwell was absolutist and Puritanical. He allowed religious
toleration for all Christians except Catholics. Military govt ended
when Cromwell died in 1658. By now the English are ready to restore
the monarchy. The restoration of the monarchy in 1660 failed to
solve the problems of religion and the relationship between the
king and parliament.
King Charles II [ r. 1660-1685 ] a Had charm, poise, &
political skills. a Restored the theaters and reopened the pubs and
brothels closed during the Restoration. a Favored religious
toleration. a Had secret Catholic sympathies. a Realized that he
could not repeat the mistakes his father had made.
King Charles II [ r. 1660-1685 ] a 1661 Cavalier Parliament
[filled with Royalists] Disbanded the Puritan army. Pardoned most
Puritan rebels. Restored the authority of the Church of England. a
1662 Clarendon Code [Act of Uniformity] All clergy & church
officials had to conform to the Anglican Book of Common Prayer. It
forbade non-conformists to worship publicly, teach their faith, or
attend English universities.
King Charles II [ r. 1660-1685 ] a 1673 Test Act Parliament
excluded all but Anglicans from civilian and military positions.
[to the Anglican gentry, the Puritans were considered radicals and
the Catholics were seen as traitors!] a 1679 Habeas Corpus Act Any
unjustly imprisoned persons could obtain a writ of habeas corpus
compelling the govt. to explain why he had lost his liberty.
Charles II pro-French policies led to anti- Catholic fear.
James II (Catholic) succeeds his brother. He violated the Test Act
by appointing Catholics to university and government positions.
James son (a Catholic heir) is born in 1688 causing a fear of a new
King James II the last Stuart King
James is forced from the throne by his son-in- law William of
Orange. There is little blood shed in the Glorious Revolution.
William and Mary are installed on the throne by Parliament ending
the idea of Divine Right monarchy. They are a Constitutional
monarchy and Parliament is their partner in governing.
The Glorious Revolution: 1688 a Whig & Tory leaders offered
the throne jointly to James IIs daughter Mary [raised a Protestant]
& her husband, William of Orange. He was a vigorous enemy of
Louis XIV. He was seen as a champion of the Protestant cause.
English Bill of Rights . Passed in 1689 and showed the limits
of royal power. Parliament is sovereign. Not a list of rights like
the American Bill of Rights Justified the ouster of James II and
the Catholics during the Glorious Revolution Established checks and
balances for the king Parliament becomes dominant force in English
English Bill of Rights [ 1689 ] a Main provisions: 1. The King
could not suspend the operation of laws. 2. The King could not
interfere with the ordinary course of justice. 3. No taxes levied
or standard army maintained in peacetime without Parliaments
consent. 4. Freedom of speech in Parliament. 5. Sessions of
Parliament would be held frequently.
6. Subjects had the right of bail, petition, and freedom from
excessive fines and cruel and unusual punishment. 7. The monarch
must be a Protestant. 8. Freedom from arbitrary arrest. 9.
Censorship of the press was dropped. 10. Religious toleration.