Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Chapter 50 Assessment of Immune Function

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Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Question Is the following statement True or False? Immunity refers to the body’s nonspecific protective response to an invading foreign agent or organism.

Text of Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Chapter 50...

Copyright 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Chapter 50 Assessment of Immune Function Copyright 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Learning Objectives Describe the bodys general immune responses. Discuss the stages of the immune response. Differentiate between cellular and humoral immune responses. Describe the effects of selected variables on function of the immune system. Use assessment parameters for determining the status of patients immune function. Copyright 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Question Is the following statement True or False? Immunity refers to the bodys nonspecific protective response to an invading foreign agent or organism. Copyright 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Answer False Immunity refers to the bodys specific, not nonspecific, protective response to an invading foreign agent or organism. Copyright 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins The Immune System Immunity: the bodys specific protective response to invading foreign agent or organism Immunopathology: the study of diseases that result from dysfunction the immune system Immune disorders Autoimmunity Hypersensitivity Gammopathies Immune deficiencies: primary and secondary Copyright 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Central and Peripheral Lymphoid Organs Copyright 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Development of Cells of the Immune System Copyright 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Lymphocytes: B lymphocytes mature in the bone marrow; T lymphocytes mature in the thymus, where they also differentiate into cells with various functions Copyright 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Immune Function Natural immunity: nonspecific response to any foreign invader White blood cell action: release cell mediators such as histamine, bradykinin, and prostaglandins, and engulf (phagocytize) foreign substances Inflammatory response Physical barriers, such as intact skin, chemical barriers, and acidic gastric secretions or enzymes in tars and saliva Acquired immunity: specific against a foreign antigen Result of prior exposure to an antigen Active or passive Copyright 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Stages of Immune Response Copyright 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Defenses Phagocytic immune response Humoral or antibody response Cellular immune response Copyright 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Question Which leukocytes arrive at the inflammation site? A.Basophils B.Eosinophils C.Monocytes D.Neutrophils Copyright 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Answer D Neutrophils arrive first at a site where inflammation occurs. Copyright 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Role of Antibodies Agglutination of antigens Opsonization Promote release of vasoactive substances; activation of complement system and phagocytosis Act in concert with other components of the immune system Types of immunoglobulins: IgA, IgD, IgE,IgG, and IgM Copyright 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Antigen-Antibody Binding Copyright 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Cellular Immune Response B lymphocytes: humoral immunity Produce antibodies or immunoglobulins T lymphocytes: cellar immunity Attack invaders directly, secrete cytokines, and stimulate immune system responses Helper T cells Cytotoxic T cells Memory cells Suppressor T cells (suppress immune response) Copyright 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Non-T and Non-B Lymphocytes Involved in Immune Response Null cells Destroy antigen coated with antibody Natural killer cells Defend against microorganisms and some malignant cells Copyright 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Complement Mediated Immune Responses Copyright 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Variables That Effect Immune System Function Age and gender Nutrition Presence of conditions or disorders: cancer/neoplasm, chronic illness, autoimmune disorders, surgery/trauma Allergies History of infection or immunization Genetic factors Lifestyle Medications and transfusions Pyschoneuroimmunologic factors Copyright 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Tests to Evaluate Immune Function WBC count and differential Bone marrow biopsy Humoral and cellular immunity tests Phagocytic cell function test Complement component tests Hypersensitivity tests Specific antigen-antibody tests HIV infection tests Copyright 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Question Is the following statement True or False? Autoimmune disorders are more common in females than males. Copyright 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Answer True Autoimmune disorders are more common in females than males.