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Core Value.mm

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Abstract The people living in a particular society hold many core beliefs and values that tend to persist. In the Marketing management its the interesting topic for study because almost all nationalities are different from each other by their own culture. This paper is regarding to cultural differences and attempting to give more explanation about consumer core beliefs and values. An important first step to successful global marketing is to understand the similarities and dissimilarities of values between cultures. Geert-Hofstede once determined the cultural dimension by six types. Whit the help of the Hofsted model Chinese and United States communities will compare by 5 cultural dimensions. These two big nationalities are the main market of every business. Also it including the examples how companies running their business in these two countries. If I want to do sell in country which hold many core beliefs and values firstly I will define culture characteristic and their values and beliefs after that using their core values and beliefs I will build strong marketing advertisement

Table of Content 1. Introduction 2. Discussion 2.1 What are core beliefs and values? 2.2 What is Geert-Hofstede model? 2.3 How different are they in particular society? 3. Conclusion 4. References

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IntroductionIf I want to do sell in country which hold many core beliefs and values firstly I will define culture characteristic and their values and beliefs after that using their core values and beliefs I will build strong marketing advertisement which might be suitable among them. Marketing managers and researchers have long been interested in the genesis of consumer core value and beliefs. In 21st century, doing business in particular area became art because the people living in different society hold many core beliefs and values. Many global companies which are successfully running their business in many countries already had understood that learning customer beliefs and values are they key of success. The belief and value components refer to the accumulated feelings and priorities that individuals have about thing and possessions. More precisely beliefs consist of the very large number of mental or verbal statement (i.e. I believe..) that reflect a persons particular knowledge and assessment of something. More generally belief and value are just one part of culture. Culture will be defined as a the sum of learned beliefs, values, and customs that serve to direct consumer behavior of members of particular society. Cultural studies as an academic discipline is more highly developed in some countries than others. Much of the research in marketing centers on understanding cultural values as like as a cultural differences. Cross-cultural differences is a legacy of the work of Hofstede who generated probably the most influential work in the field. The use of cultural indices or individual self reports as measures the extent to which the culture of one country is similar or different from another. In Cultures Consequences, the cultures of 93 countries were positioned on six dimensions. As in communication, negotiation and management, the Six dimensions model is very useful in international marketing too because it defines national values not only in business context but in general.. As companies try to adapt their products and services to local habits and preferences they have to understand the specificity of their market.

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The Core beliefs and values

People in a given society hold many core beliefs and values. Their core beliefs and values have a high degree of persistence. Core Beliefs and Values are passed on from parents to children and reinforced by schools, churches, business and government Values and beliefs are things that consumers hold special to them. The values of systems of consumers form their opinions, influence their decisions and motivate their actions. Individual consumers and groups of consumers have special values based on several factors and there is often a diverse range of values within a market. Examples of values include: Honesty. Telling the truth and not trying to mislead others.

Integrity. Being a person who can be trusted and relied on by others. Fair dealing. Not taking advantage of others or ripping people off. Consideration of others. Respecting and having concern for the welfare and feeling of others. Values are not tastes and preferences of a consumer, quantities of something or advantages and disadvantages of alternatives.

Factors of Consumer Values Several factors may contribute to the formation of values:

Upbringing. Family and the conditions of one's childhood are the largest contributors to forming values. Parents teach children what is acceptable to do. Culture. Practices and traditions formed for survival and identity influence decisions, even a situation changes. Mass media. Movies, television, radio, the Internet and other mass media all contribute to what is acceptable and fashionable.Page 4

Religion. The beliefs of a consumer influence their decision tremendously. For example, many religions have beliefs on what is acceptable to eat. Peer pressure. Conforming to the social expectations causes people to make certain choices.

BackgroundThe first step to successful cross-cultural marketing is to understand cultural differences (Briley and Aaker, 2006; Lillis and Tian, 2010). The reasoning is that consumers grow up in a particular culture and become accustomed to that culture's value systems, beliefs, and perception processes. Consequently, they respond to advertising messages that are congruent with their culture, rewarding advertisers who understand that culture and tailor ads to reflect its values (Cheng and Schweitzer, 1996; Culter and Javalgi,1992, Desmarais, 2007). Albers-Millers (1996) study of 55 country pairs indicates that similar cultures have similar advertising contentand dissimilar societies have dissimilar advertising content.

Hofstedes cultural dimension theoryCross-cultural differences are a legacy of the work of Hofstede who generated probably the most influential work in the field. The use of cultural indices or individual self reports as measures the extent to which the culture of one country is similar or different from another. In Cultures Consequences, the cultures of 93 countries were positioned on six dimensions. As in communication, negotiation and management, the Six dimensions model is very useful in international marketing too because it defines national values not only in business context but in general.. As companies try to adapt their products and services to local habits and preferences they have to understand the specificity of their market. For example, if you want to market cars in a country where the uncertainty avoidance is high, you should emphasize on their safety, whereas in other countries you may base your advertisement on the social image they give you. Cell phone marketing is another interesting example of the application of Hofstedes model for cultural differences: if you want to advertise cell phones in China, you may show a collective experience whereas in the United States you may show how an individual uses it to save time and money. The variety of application of Hofstedes abstract theory is so wide that it has even been translated in the field of web designing in which you have to adapt to national preferences according to cultures values.

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Dimensions of national cultures

Power distance index (PDI): Power distance is the extent to which the less powerful members of organizations and institutions (like the family) accept and expect that power is distributed unequally. Cultures that endorse low power distance expect and accept power relations that are more consultative or democratic. People relate to one another more as equals regardless of formal positions. Subordinates are more comfortable with and demand the right to contribute to and critique the decision making of those in power. In high power distance countries, less powerful accept power relations that are more autocratic and paternalistic. Subordinates acknowledge the power of others simply based on where they are situated in certain formal, hierarchical positions. As such, the power distance index Hofstede defines does not reflect an objective difference in power distribution, but rather the way people perceive power differences. Individualism (IDV) vs. collectivism: The degree to which individuals are integrated into groups. In individualistic societies, the stress is put on personal achievements and individual rights. People are expected to stand up for themselves and their immediate family, and to choose their own affiliations. In contrast, in collectivist societies, individuals act predominantly as members of a life-long and cohesive group or organization (note: The word collectivism in this sense has no political meaning: it refers to the group, not to the state). People have large extended families, which are used as a protection in exchange for unquestioning loyalty. Uncertainty avoidance index (UAI): a society's tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity. It reflects the extent to which members of a society attempt to cope with anxiety by minimizing uncertainty. People in cultures with high uncertainty avoidance tend to be more emotional. They try to minimize the occurrence of unknown and unusual circumstances and to proceed with careful changes step by step by planning and by implementing rules, laws and regulations. In contrast, low uncertainty avoidance cultures accept and feel comfortable in unstructured situations or changeable environments and try to have as few rules as possible. People in these cultures tend to be more pragmatic, they are more tolerant of change. Masculinity (MAS), vs. femininity: The distribution of emotional roles betw

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