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CORRELATION BETWEEN GRAMMATICAL between grammatical competence and pragmatic competence among iranian university efl learners ... speech act theory

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  • CORRELATION BETWEEN GRAMMATICAL

    COMPETENCE AND PRAGMATIC COMPETENCE

    AMONG IRANIAN UNIVERSITY EFL LEARNERS

    SEYEDEH SEPIDEH MOJABI

    DISSERTATION SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT

    OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF LINGUISTICS

    FACULTY OF LANGUAGES AND LINGUISTICS

    UNIVERSITY OF MALAYA

    KUALA LUMPUR

    2014

  • ii

    UNIVERSITI MALAYA

    ORIGINAL LITERARY WORK DECLARATION

    Name of Candidate: Seyedeh Sepideh Mojabi (Passport No: X95385550)

    Registration/Matric No: TGC080002

    Name of Degree: Master of Linguistics

    Title of Dissertation:

    Correlation between Grammatical Competence and Pragmatic Competence among

    Iranian University EFL Learners

    Field of Study: Applied Linguistics

    I do solemnly and sincerely declare that:

    (1) I am the sole author/writer of this Work;

    (2) This Work is original;

    (3) Any use of any work in which copyright exists was done by way of fair dealing and for

    permitted purposes and any excerpt or extract from, or reference to or reproduction of

    any copyright work has been disclosed expressly and sufficiently and the title of the

    Work and its authorship have been acknowledged in this Work;

    (4) I do not have any actual knowledge nor ought I reasonably to know that the making of

    this work constitutes an infringement of any copyright work;

    (5) I hereby assign all and every rights in the copyright to this Work to the University of

    Malaya (UM), who henceforth shall be owner of the copyright in this Work and that

    any reproduction or use in any form or by any means whatsoever is prohibited without

    the written consent of UM having been first had and obtained;

    (6) I am fully aware that if in the course of making this Work I have infringed any

    copyright whether intentionally or otherwise, I may be subject to legal action or any

    other action as may be determined by UM.

    Candidates Signature Date: 17 March 2014

    Subscribed and solemnly declared before,

    Witnesss Signature Date: 17 March 2014

    Name: Dr. Musaev Talaibek

    Designation: Supervisor

  • iii

    ABSTRACT

    This study sought to determine the levels of pragmatic competence among Iranian EFL

    learners and to correlate these levels with their levels of grammatical competence. In order

    to do this, separate tests were devised. One set of tests was designed to measure pragmatic

    competence. A second set of tests was devised to test grammatical competence. The

    difference between their pragmatic competence and grammatical competence was

    examined for any significant correlation between them. In addition, the effect of learning

    methods on the pragmatic and grammatical competence was tested. The findings show that

    there is a weak or no correlation between EFL Iranian university students grammatical

    competence and their pragmatic competence. The findings also show that learning methods

    do have a significant effect on the Iranian students pragmatic and grammar competence.

    In addition, the study shows a predominance of traditional teaching and learning practices

    in Iran.

  • iv

    ABSTRAK

    Kajian bertujuan untuk menentukan tahap kecekapan pragmatik pelajar EFL Iran dan

    mengaitkan hasil ini dengan tahap kecekapan tatabahasa mereka. Dalam usaha untuk

    melakukan ini, ujian berasingan telah direka. Satu set ujian direka untuk mengukur

    kecekapan pragmatik. Satu set ujian kedua telah direka untuk menguji kecekapan

    tatabahasa. Kemudian perbezaan diantara kecekapan pragmatik dan kecekapan tatabahasa

    telah dikaji untuk melihat sama ada terdapat sebarang hubungan yang signifikan di antara

    keduanya. Di samping itu, kesan kaedah pembelajaran ke atas kecekapan pragmatik dan

    tatabahasa juga diuji. Hasil kajian menunjukkan bahawa terdapat hubungan yang lemah

    atau tidak ada antara kecekapan tatabahasa pelajar EFL Iran dan kecekapan pragmatik

    mereka. Kajian juga menunjukkan bahawa kaedah pembelajaran yang mempunyai kesan

    yang besar ke atas kecekapan pragmatik dan tatabahasa para pelajar Iran. Disamping itu,

    kajian menunjukkan dominasi pengajaran dan amalan pembelajaran tradisional di Iran.

  • v

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

    In particular, I would like to thank Dr Jawakhir and Ms Mac for their enduring and

    faithful support throughout my time at University of Malaya. During the initial stages of the

    thesis, when I experienced a lack of clarity in terms of direction, they provided invaluable

    help in shaping the thesis and its aims. After that, whenever I needed support or I faced

    academic or personal difficulties, they strengthened my resolve to overcome obstacles,

    providing moral support and general guidance.

    I would also like to thank Dr Talaibek, who, due to staff changes, had to read and

    comment on this thesis, at a very late stage, without any prior introduction to the work. I

    appreciate the time and effort he devoted to providing invaluable feedback and detailed

    comment.

  • vi

    4TABLE OF CONTENTS

    ABSTRACT .......................................................................................................................... iii

    ABSTRAK ............................................................................................................................ iv

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ................................................................................................... v

    TABLE OF CONTENTS ...................................................................................................... vi

    LIST OF FIGURES .............................................................................................................. vii

    LIST OF TABLES................................................................................................................ vii

    CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................... 1

    1.1 Background of the study .......................................................................................... 1

    1.2 Perceptions of language competence ....................................................................... 2

    1.2.1 English and status of teaching English in Iran .................................................... 3

    1.2.2 Problems faced by Iranian students learning EFL .............................................. 7

    1.2.3 Teachers perceptions of EFL learners ................................................................ 9

    1.3 The problem statement ............................................................................................. 9

    1.4 Purpose of study ..................................................................................................... 16

    1.5 Research objectives ................................................................................................ 17

    1.6 Research questions ................................................................................................. 18

    1.7 Significance of the study ........................................................................................ 18

    1.8 Summary ................................................................................................................ 19

    1.9 Definitions .............................................................................................................. 20

    CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW .............................................................................. 22

    2.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................ 22

    2.2 A definition of communicative competence .......................................................... 23

    2.3 Models of communicative competence ................................................................. 28

    2.4 Theories of second language acquisition (SLA) .................................................... 30

    2.5 Relationship between SLA theories and pedagogical practice .............................. 34

    2.6 Teaching approaches and the development of grammatical and pragmatic

    competence ............................................................................................................ 39

    2.7 Factors in determining L2 pragmatic competence ................................................. 42

    2.8 Theories of pragmatics: Speech act theory ............................................................ 44

    2.9 The learning context of Iranians in Iran including past studies ............................. 46

    CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY ....................................................................................... 52

    3.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................... 52

    3.2 Research design ..................................................................................................... 53

    3.3 Sample selection .................................................................................................... 55

    3.4 Research instruments ............................................................................................. 56

    3.5 Data collection, coding and categorisation ..............................................

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