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COUNTER -REFORMATION IN . · PDF file PREFACE. THE Counter-Reformation in Europe was the great subject of Ranke's 'Ecclesiastical and Political History of the Popes,' published about

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T HE Counter-Reformation in Europe was the great subject of Ranke's 'Ecclesiastical and Political History of the Popes,' published about sixty years
ago. His object was to give information on a period of history which had escaped the notice of ecclesiastical historians. The important matter before him was ·to give the reasons for the failure of the Lutheran Reforma­ tion to conquer Europe. With this view he sought for information in the archives at Vienna, Berlin and Venice.
Lord Macaulay, in his essay on Ranke's work, gives a history of four periods in which the Church of Rome, having suffered loss, afterwards regained its ascendancy. A few pages, however, in the Edinburgh Review on one of those periods, the Counter-Reformation, do not give room for an exhaustive treatment of this important subject. Be­ sides, errors and serious omissions are to be found in it. He states that 'the history of the Order of Jesus is the history of the great Catholic reaction. That Order possessed itself at once of all the strongholds which com­ mand the public mind, of the pulpit, of the press, of the confessional, of the academies.' He then proceeds to show that when the Jesuits came to the succour of the
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Papacy they found it in a very critical condition, but that afterwards, mainly through them, the tide of conquest was arrested in its course. He states that Protestantism, which during twenty-five years had overcome all resist­ ance, was driven back through their instrumentality from the foot of the Alps to the borders of the Baltic.
Lord Macaulay has attached too much importance to the Order of the Jesuits. Protestantism in Italy, Spain and the Netherlands was not suppressed by them, but by the Roman and Spanish Inquisition, by the Pope, by Philip II. of Spain, and by the Dominicans; We shall see that in France, during the sixteenth century, the Jesuits have not exercised much influence, and that Germany has been the only country in which they at first made any progress. I have shown (pp. 55, 56) that they acted an important, but only a subordinate, part in this great drama.
In fact, after, as before, 1550, Protestantism continued to advance in Germany, in Poland, in Hungary, in the Scandinavian kingdoms, and in Austria. The principal agents in arresting its progress were, as we shall see, in addition to Philip II., Ferdinand of Austria and the Council of Trent. But the only reference to Philip II. is the following: 'Philip II. was a Papist in a very different sense from that in which Elizabeth was a Protestant.' Lord Macaulay does not bring forward the intense zeal with which Philip, and Ferdi­ nand II. about thirty years after the death of Philip, laboured for the advancement of Romanism, but states incorrectly, as we shall see, that 'the Thirty Years' War was less a contest for the reformed doctrines than for national independence.' He does not make the least reference to the decrees of the Council of Trent in con-
Preface Vll
nection with the work of the Jesuits. But without them the Jesuits would have been unable to stay the advance of the Reformation.
Again he writes: ' The Catholic reaction went on at full speed in spite of the destruction of the Armada.' But this is a very serious misstatement. It wilI appear that the destruction of the Spanish Armada was a most im­ portant episode in the reign of Elizabeth, and in the general history of the Counter - Reformation, both in England and on the Continent. 'It was the means of saving Europe, as we shall see, from subjection to the Church of Rome. I have endeavoured to give promi­ nence to this result. It has as yet been scarcely brought before readers of history. In fact, the bearing of the Counter-Reformation in England on the general struggle on the Continent has been omitted by writers of ecclesiastical history.
We have much information of late years as to. the general history of this period from State Papers, letters, and other documents which have hitherto been buried in family or State archives in England or in foreign countries. We are only now in a position, through materials which have come before us, to understand that part of the history which is connected with this country, including the 'aims and schemes of the opponents of Elizabeth. No more important contribution has been made to the history of this time than the publication of the diaries of the English College at Douai and the letters of Cardinal Allen, which will be fully described. I have also obtained new and important information as to the spy system, and as to the training and work of Allen's seminary priests, as well as to the commencement of the work of the Jesuits in England. The papers brought before us in the course of the last few
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years enable us to see in a way not seen before that Allen was the leader of the Counter-Reformation in England, and that if, separating his religious from his political work, he had not stimulated the decaying zeal of Philip, the Armada would never have been sent against England. He thus, as we shall see, indirectly prevented the com­ plete triumph of the Counter-Reformation not only in England, but throughout the continent of Europe.
I add these errors to those which have been discovered in Macaulay's essays and history in regard to Bacon, Strafford, Laud, Hampden, Clive, Warren Hastings, and others. We know that in many cases prejudices and prepossessions led him to distort the truth, and to give an incorrect view of these and other historical characters. Notwithstanding these errors, he still has a hold upon the admiration of his fellow-countrymen. His history is read everywhere. It has been translated into several languages of Europe. We belie':e that his style has been a cause of the success of this work, and that it has served to blind his admirers to the errors in his essays and history. Professor Saintsbury pronounces a just judgment on his style when he says that 'it is the clearest style in English that does not, like those of Swift and Cobbett, deliberately or scornfully eschew historical ornament. \Vhat Macaulay means you can never, being any degree short of an idiot, fail to understand.' I hold that truthfulness and good faith are most important qualities in everyone who undertakes to pronounce a judgment on the events of history, and on those who have acted an important part on the world's high stage. We observe that these qualities are conspicuous in Bishop Creighton's history of the Popes during the Reformation. The following work gives the history of the period required
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for the completio111of that work, beginning from the sack of ~ome, the last event described by him in the time of Clement VII. He has stated that, on account of his numerous engagements, there is no probability that he will be able to complete his work. Thus we should be left without a description of a most important period of ecclesiastical history. My object is not only to correct the errors to which reference has been made, but also to give in a popular form a history of the Counter-Reforma­ tion from about 1558 to the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. I have placed at the beginning a list of works and of papers which I have found useful in writing this history. The foreign works particularly will be found to add very much to the information at the disposal of Ranke when his work was first published. As Lord Acton writes in his admirable lecture on the study of history : 'When Hallam wrote his chapter on James II. France was the only Power whose reports were available; Rome followed and the Hague ; and then came the stores of the Italian States, and at last the Prussian and the Austrian papers, and partly those of Spain. The topics indeed are few on which the resources have been so employed that we can be content with the work done for us, and never wish it to be done over again. . . . I would not even venture to claim for Ranke, the real originator of the heroic study of the records, and the most prompt and fortunate of European pathfinders, that there is one of his seventy volumes that has not been overtaken, and in part sur­ passed. . . • It was his mission to preserve, not to undermine, and to set up masters in their proper sphere whom he could obey. The many excellent dissertations in which he displayed this art, though his successors in the next generation matched his skill and did still more
thorough work, are the best introduction from which we can learn the technical· process by which, within living memory, the story of modern history has been renewed.'
The conclusion to which Lord Acton wishes to bring us is that we must follow Ranke's example if we hope to be successful. He tells us, in fact, that we must never shrink from the labour of searching for materials, now examining a long-forgotten record, now a large mass of State Papers recently brought to light, now a field of battle; that we must bring the subject before our readers in a style which will rivet their attention and give them a distinct idea of the scenes which pass before them. I trust that I have acted in the spirit and adopted the method here recommended, and that the new information obtained from the sources indicated has been made avail­ able for a most important period in the history of Europe.
Allen, Cardinal, Life of, by Dr. Bellesheim. -- Letters and Memorials of. . Baird, History of the Rise of the Huguenots. Botta, Storia d' Italia. Brampton, Letters of the Fathers of the Oratory of. Butler, History of the English Catholics. Butler, Tracts of. Campian, Life of, by Simpson. Cantu, Cresare, Gli Eretici d' Italia. Clarendon Papers, The, Vol. I. Conclaves, The Papal, Trollope and Canon Pennington. Dejob, De l'lnfluence du Concilo de Trente, Paris, 1884. Dodd, History of the English Catholics. Douai, Diaries of the College of. Froude's British Seamen. -- Lectures on the Council of Trent. -- History of England, Vol. XI. Gardner, S. R., History of England from the Accession of James I.
to the Outbreak of the Civil War. -- History of the Thirty Years' War. Green, History of the English People. Gustavus Adolphus, Life of, by Fletcher and Chapman. Hallam, History of Engl:md. Hubner, Count von, Monograph on Sixtus V. Inquisition, Records of the. Jessopp, One Generation of a Norfolk House. Llorente, Histoire Critique de l'Inquisition d'Espagne.
Xll Works Consulted
McCrie, History of the Reformation in Italy. Martin Phillippson, Coutre-Revolution Religieuse. Maurenbrecher, Geschichte der Katholiscen Reformation. Moritz Brosch, Geschichte des Kirchenstaates. Motley, United Netherlands. Mutenelli, Storia Arcana d' Italia. Pallavicini, Storia del Concilio Tridentino. Panzani, Memoirs of, by Berrington. Ranke, History of the Popes, Vols. I., II., III., translated by Sarah
Austin. -- History of France. -- History of England. Sarpi, Life of, by A. G. Campbell. Sismondi, History of the Italian Republics. State Papers, Domestic Series, A.D. 1581-1590. Symonds, The Catholic Reaction. Tracts for the Times: Catena Patrum (81); Deus, Natura, et
Gratia (90). Trent, History of the Council of, by Fra Paolo Sarpi, published in
London in 1619 under the assumed name of Pietro Soave Polano, translated by Nathaniel Brent.
-- History of, by Rev. Dr. Littledale. -- Martin Phi!lippson on. -- Canons and Decrees of, translated by Rev. J. Waterworth.
Page 22, line 20,jor 'the' read'her.' Page 25, line 2,jor 'pursuasion' read' persuasion. Page 35, line 5 from foot,for 'in' read' by.' Page 37, line 16,.for' Misaccio' read' Masaccio.' Page 42, line 3,jor 'allegiance' read' submission.' Page 44, line 18,for 'this' read' thus.' Page 44, line 19,for' Guistiani' read' Giustiani.' Page 44, line 20,jor 'Adrian VII.' read' Adrian VI.' Page 47, line 19, omit' not.' Page 69, line 17 from foot,for 'Pius' read' Paul.' Page 130, line 20 from foot, for 'chiefly' read' pan!;.'
Importance of considering the causes of any great event-The Reformation in the sixteenth century one of those events -The alienation of the laity from the clergy on account of their wealth and luxury, one of the preludes to it-The corrupt state of the monasteries another of the grievances of Christendom-Their failure to fulfil the end designed by their establishment explained-The abuses of the Papacy, including the despotic authority of the Popes, and their mterference with Church patronage, causes of the decline of their power -Other complaints against them-The wealth, luxury, ostenta- tious style of living, and extortions of the Popes durmg their residence at Avignon, and their absence from Rome, causes of the decline of the Papacy-Petrarch's description of the Papal Court-The Papal schism a cause of the decline of the Papacy - The Councils of Constance and Basel, and their failure to apply a remedy to the evils of Christendom-Proof of the corrupt state of the Church-The evil lives of the Popes, and the humanism encouraged by them, causes of the decline of the Papacy-Failure of Adrian VI. to apply a remedy to
the evils of Christendom-The vices and irreligion which prevailed, causes of the rapid progress of the ]:{eformation -Description of the progress-The doctrines preached by the Reformers - 1-23
Causes of the ultimate failure of the Reformation in Spain and Italy-Reference to the final progress of the Counter-Refor­ mation-The Lutheran Reformation at first partially success­ ful in Italy-Efforts of Contarini, Valdes, Ochino, Flaminio and others for a Reformation on the Lutheran basis-Dis­ cussion at Ratisbon for a Reformation 'on this basis, and the failure of it-Character and views of Paul II l.-The work ?f the monastic Orders in regenerating the Church-Reform m the Orders of Camaldoli, the Mendicants, and the Capu-
XVI Contents
chins-Foundation of the Order of the Brothers of Charity by Jean de Dieu-Establishment of the Oratory of Love and of the Theatins-De!>cription of Gaetan di Thiene, Caraffa, of their work, and of the institution which they estab­ lished-The Barnabites-Philip de Neri-The establishment of these Orders, and of the Jesuits, important causes of the
Counter-Reformation · 24-49
Early career of Ignatius Loyola-His establishment of the Order of the Jesuits-His personality-His ideas as to the surrender of our judgment to the Church-His devotion to her cause-Lord Macaulay's error as to the Jesuits-The latter only good secondary agents-Services rendered by the Jesuits to Romanism-Thtir mode of action objectionable in a moral point of view-The means employed to train them­ Absolute submission to the Church required from them­ Their vow of poverty-Education one of their objects-The acquisition of skill in civil transactions another-An omni­ present influence-The Order a failure because it represses individuality-Their interference with politics in former days a source of danger-Ultimate failure of the designs of the Order on account of its reactionary spirit 50-68
Paul III. and his appointments to the cardinalate-His object· in making them a compromise with the Lutherans-Change in his mode of action shown by his consent to the establish· tnent of the Inquisition-The rules by which it was guided­ The progress of the Reformation arrested by it-The Italians not likely to change their religion-Unsuccessful attempts to capture Ochino and Peter Martyr Vermiglio-Their flight a cause of the failure of the Reformation in Italy-Progress of it interrupted at Lucca without the Inquisition-Its con· tinued succes~-Caraffa's decree against the sale of books without the consent of the Inquisition, and its disastrous consequences-Caraffa and M. Ghi,lieri its rulmg spirits­ Description of Caraffa-His elevation to the Papacy the triumph of ,the reaction-Terror caused by the Inquisition­ Success of the campaign agaimt literature-The privileges of the Inquisition increased-Its increasing rigour-Public rejoicings at the death of Paul, and riots after it-Terrible tortures inflicttd by it on the Italian Waldenses-Its succe>s at Venice-Complete triumph of the Inquisition under Pius V. -The Reformation at iifst unsuccessful in Spain, but after· wards makes progress in Sevillt', Valladolid, and the neigh­ bouring country-Its progress arrested by the lnquisition­ Destription of the Inquisition-Greatly aided by the savage
zeal of Charles V. and Philip I 1.-The autos-da-fe, and the delight of the Spaniards in them-Rapid progress of bigotry -Archbishop Carranza-Suppression of the Reformation
-The consequent separation of Spain from the intellectual - life of Europe - - 69-97
Determination of the Emperor that a Council should be summoned-Opposition of Clement VII.-His character­ Arrangement at length made that it should meet at Trent­ Description of the place~Final meeting after adjournment­ Different views of the Pope and Charles as to the matters before it-The objects of Charles in 1i:onnection with it im­ practicable-The Pope's means of defeating his designs­ Decrees of doctrine passed-Some show of compliance with Charles's wish as to reform-Connection between political events and the alteration of Paul's policy-Council removed to Bologna-Death and character of Paul III.-Election of Julius III.-Council brought back to Trent-Dogmatic de­ crees passed by it-Protestants invited, but not allowed a voice at it-The hope of peace with the Protestants a mere chimera - Disappointment of Charles on account of his failure, and his withdrawal from the world-Dissolution of Council - Reflections upon it - Marcellus I I.-Paul IV.­ Character of Pius IV.-Council summoned at Trent-Design of Pius to make the Pope supreme-Final success after much discord-Catherine de' Medici and the Cardinal of Lorraine, and their designs in connection with the Council-Death of the Legates-The new Legates successful in persuading the Emperor to make concessions- Dictation of decrees by the Pope-Opposition of France and Spain overcome-End of the Council-Its decrees not universally accepted-Its settlement of the doctrines of the Church which were pre­ viously uncertain-Extreme doctrines sanctioned by it, in. eluding especially the supreme power given to the Pope­ Re-organization of the College of Cardinals not effected­ The Jesuits the authors of the changes made at it-The character of Pius IV.-His retirement from the world, and the success of his policy 98-129
Rapid progress of the Reformation-The influences which checked it-The first cause mentioned is the greater zeal of the Popes Paul IV., Pius IV. and Fius V.-Description of Cardinal Borromeo and of his work-Philip II. of Spain and his influence on the Counter-Reformation-Gregory XII I. ·- Sixtus V. and his schemes-The progress of the Counter-
XVlll Contents
Reformation in Germany-The Jesuits, who were aided by the decrees of the Council of Trent, the agents in it--The progress of it in Austria and lllyria-Promoted by the dis­ sensions of the Protestants-Progress in the Netherlands­ The cruelties of Philip and Alva-Resistance of the inhabi­ tants under William of Orange, which was for some time unsuccessful-Its end and results-Progress of the Reforma­ tion in France-The reaction and its causes-Character of Charles IX. and Catherine de' Medici-The Massacre of St. Bartholomew-Advance of Romanism partly through the Jesuits-League to exclude Henry of Navarre from the throne-Events connected with the league-The assassina­ tion of the Duke of Guise, and subsequent assassination of Henry III.-His assassination recommended by the Jesuits, a:nd extolled by Sixt us V .-A description of the designs of the Jesuits-The success of Henry IV. in battle, which the Duke of Parma made of no…

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