# Counting Principals, Permutations, and Combinations

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Counting Principals, Permutations, and Combinations. A counting problem asks “how many ways” some event can occur. Ex. 1: How many three-letter codes are there using letters A, B, C, and D if no letter can be repeated? One way to solve is to list all possibilities. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Counting, Permutations, & Combinations

Counting Principals, Permutations, and CombinationsA counting problem asks how many ways some event can occur.Ex. 1: How many three-letter codes are there using letters A, B, C, and D if no letter can be repeated?

One way to solve is to list all possibilities.Ex. 2: An experimental psychologist uses a sequence of two food rewards in an experiment regarding animal behavior. These two rewards are of three different varieties. How many different sequences of rewards are there if each variety can be used only once in each sequence?Next slide

Another way to solve is a factor tree where the number of end branches is your answer.Count the number of branches to determine the number of ways.There are six different ways to give the rewards.Fundamental Counting PrincipleSuppose that a certain procedure P can be broken into n successive ordered stages, S1, S2, . . . Sn, and suppose that S1 can occur in r1 ways. S2 can occur in r2 ways. Sn can occur in rn ways.Then the number of ways P can occur is

Ex. 2 Revisited: An experimental psychologist uses a sequence of two food rewards in an experiment regarding animal behavior. These two rewards are of three different varieties. How many different sequences of rewards are there if each variety can be used only once in each sequence?Using the fundamental counting principle:

32X1st reward2nd rewardPermutationsAn r-permutation of a set of n elements is an ordered selection of r elements from the set of n elements

! means factorialEx. 3! = 3210! = 1Ex. 1 Revisited: How many three-letter codes are there using letters A, B, C, and D if no letter can be repeated?

Note: The order does matter

CombinationsThe number of combinations of n elements taken r at a time is

Where n & r are nonnegative integers & r < nOrder does NOT matter!Ex. 3: How many committees of three can be selected from four people? Use A, B, C, and D to represent the peopleNote: Does the order matter?

Ex. 4: How many ways can the 4 call letters of a radio station be arranged if the first letter must be W or K and no letters repeat?

Ex. 5: In how many ways can a class of 25 students elect a president, vice-president, and secretary if no student can hold more than one office?

Ex. 6: How many five-card hands are possible from a standard deck of cards?

Ex. 7: In how many ways can 9 horses place 1st, 2nd, or 3rd in a race?

Ex. 8: Suppose there are 15 girls and 18 boys in a class. In how many ways can 2 girls and 2 boys be selected for a group project?15C2 18C2 = 16,065

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