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    1616 Rhode Island Avenue NW

    Washington, DC 20036

    202 887 0200 |

    Lanham Boulder New York London

    4501 Forbes Boulevard

    Lanham, MD 20706

    301 459 3366 |

    v*:+:!:+:!ISBN 978-1-4422-8043-4

    Distributed Defense

    J A N U A R Y 2 0 1 8

    New Operational Concepts for Integrated Air and Missile Defense

    AUTHORS Thomas Karako Wes Rumbaugh

    A Report of the



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    J A N U A R Y 2 0 1 8

    Distributed DefenseNew Operational Concepts for Integrated Air and Missile Defense


    Thomas KarakoWes Rumbaugh

    Lanham Boulder New York London

    594-72631_ch00_3P.indd 1 12/6/17 9:49 AM

  • About CSIS

    For over 50years, the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) has worked

    to develop solutions to the worlds greatest policy challenges. Today, CSIS scholars are

    providing strategic insights and bipartisan policy solutions to help decisionmakers chart a

    course toward a better world.

    CSIS is a nonprofit organ ization headquartered in Washington, D.C. The Centers 220 full-

    time staff and large network of affiliated scholars conduct research and analy sis and develop

    policy initiatives that look into the future and anticipate change.

    Founded at the height of the Cold War by DavidM. Abshire and Admiral Arleigh Burke, CSIS

    was dedicated to finding ways to sustain American prominence and prosperity as a force for

    good in the world. Since 1962, CSIS has become one of the worlds preeminent international

    institutions focused on defense and security; regional stability; and transnational

    challenges ranging from energy and climate to global health and economic integration.

    ThomasJ. Pritzker was named chairman of the CSIS Board of Trustees in November2015.

    FormerU.S. deputy secretary of defense JohnJ. Hamre has served as the Centers president

    and chief executive officer since 2000.

    CSIS does not take specific policy positions; accordingly, all views expressed herein should

    be understood to be solely those of the author(s).

    2017 by the Center for Strategic and International Studies. All rights reserved.

    ISBN: 978-1-4422-8043-4 (pb); 978-1-4422-8044-1 (eBook)

    Center for Strategic & International Studies Rowman & Littlefield

    1616 Rhode Island Ave nue, NW 4501 Forbes Boulevard

    Washington, DC 20036 Lanham, MD 20706

    202-887-0200 | www . csis . org 301 - 459 - 3366 | www . rowman . com

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  • III


    iv List of Figures

    v List of Tables

    vi List of Acronyms

    viii Acknowl edgments

    1 CHAPTER1 | After Integration, What?

    1 New Operating Environment

    2 Multi- Domain Battle

    4 The Specter of Suppression

    4 Concepts for More Distributed Operations

    9 CHAPTER2 | Shortcomings in the Current Force

    10 Stovepipes of Excellence

    10 Single Points of Failure

    12 Under- Focus on Non- Ballistic Threats

    13 High Cost, Low Capacity

    14 Sectored, Ground- Based Radar Coverage

    15 Long- Recognized Challenges

    18 CHAPTER3 | New Operational Concepts for IAMD

    18 Network Centrism: Any Sensor, Best Shooter

    23 Ele ment Dispersal: Redefine the Firing Unit

    25 Mixed Loads: Layered Defense in a Box

    28 Offense- Defense Launchers: Any Launcher, Any Mission

    32 Multi- Mission Shooters: Any Missile, Any Target

    34 Containerized Launchers: Any Launcher, Anywhere

    37 Passive Defense Shell Game: Some Full, Many Empty

    42 CHAPTER4 | Toward More Distributed IAMD Operations

    45 About the Authors

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  • Iv

    List of Figures

    3 1.1. Multi- Domain Battle

    5 1.2. Defining Integrated Air and Missile Defense

    7 1.3. Mark 41 Vertical Launching System

    11 2.1. Stovepiping in Air and Missile Defense

    12 2.2. Crashed North Korean Drone

    15 2.3. Patriot and Terminal High Altitude Area Defense Radars

    16 2.4. Medium Extended Air Defense System Radar

    17 2.5. Calls for Joint Integrated Air and Missile Defense

    19 3.1. Terminal High Altitude Area Defense Launcher

    22 3.2. Sentinel Radar System

    24 3.3. Israels Iron Dome Launcher

    26 3.4. Multi- Mission Launcher

    27 3.5. Patriot Launcher Configurations

    29 3.6. Multiple Launch Rocket System

    30 3.7. Notional Distributed Defense Launcher Concepts

    31 3.8. Ground- Based Test of the Vertical Launching System

    33 3.9. Standard Missile-6

    35 3.10. Containerized Launcher Concept

    36 3.11. Non Line of Sight Launch System

    38 3.12. British Tank Decoy

    39 3.13. MX Peacekeeper Basing Mode Concept

    40 3.14. Rus sian Club- K Containerized Launcher

    43 4.1. Post Gulf War Highway of Death

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  • v

    List of Tables

    6 1.1. Material and Operational Concepts for Distributed Defense

    37 3.1. Container and Canister Dimensions

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  • vI

    List of Acronyms

    A2/AD anti- access/area denial

    AMD air and missile defense

    AMRAAM Advanced Medium- Range Air- to- Air Missile

    ARCIC Army Capabilities Integration Center

    ATACMS Army Tactical Missile System

    BMDS Ballistic Missile Defense System

    C2 command and control

    C2BMC Command and Control, Battle Management, and Communications

    CEC Cooperative Engagement Capability

    DOTMLPF doctrine, organ ization, training, materiel, leadership and education,

    personnel, and facilities

    DPICC Dismounted Patriot Information Coordination Central

    ECS Engagement Control Station

    ELES Enhanced Launcher Electronics System

    ENBAD Extended- range Non- Ballistic Air Defense

    ESSM Evolved Seasparrow Missile

    FCS Future Combat System

    GBI Ground- based Interceptor

    GEM Guidance Enhanced Missile

    GMD Ground- based Midcourse Defense

    HAWK Homing All the Way Killer

    HIMARS High Mobility Artillery Rocket System

    IAMD integrated air and missile defense

    IBCS Integrated Air and Missile Defense Battle Command System

    ICBM intercontinental ballistic missile

    ICC Information Coordination Central

    IFPC Indirect Fire Protection Capability

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  • List of Acronyms vII

    ISR intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance

    JIAMDO Joint Integrated Air and Missile Defense Organization

    JLENS Joint Land Attack Cruise Missile Defense Elevated Netted Sensor

    LRASM Long- Range Antiship Missile

    MDAP Major Defense Acquisition Program

    MDB Multi- Domain Battle

    MEADS Medium Extended Air Defense System

    MLRS Multiple Launch Rocket System

    MML Multi- Mission Launcher

    MSE Missile Segment Enhancement

    NASAMS National Advanced Surface- to- Air Missile System

    NIFC- CA Navy Integrated Fire Control- Counter Air

    NLOS- LS Non Line of Sight Launch System

    OIF Operation Iraqi Freedom

    PAC-3 Patriot Advanced Capability-3

    PACOM Pacific Command

    RAM rocket, artillery, and mortar

    SEAD suppression of enemy air defenses

    SHORAD short- range air defense

    SLAMRAAM Surface- Launched AMRAAM

    SM Standard Missile

    SMDC U.S. Army Space and Missile Defense Command

    THAAD Terminal High Altitude Area Defense

    TRADOC U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command

    UAV unmanned aerial vehicle

    VLS Vertical Launching System

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  • vIII

    Acknowl edgments

    The authors would like to recognize and thank all of those who reviewed drafts of the report or

    provided background thoughts for the research, including Dick Formica, Rick Glitz, Brian Green,

    Kathleen Hicks, Arch Macy, Fran Mahon, Melanie Marlowe, and others. The authors would also like

    to acknowledge Ian Williams, Daniel Cebul, Shaan Shaikh, and Jessica Harmon for their assistance

    with this proj ect.

    This report is made pos si ble by general support to CSIS. No direct sponsorship contributed to its


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  • 1


    After Integration, What?

    A new prob lem has arisen: the prospect of conflict with near- peer adversaries who have spent two

    de cades going to school on the American way of war. Although a conversation is now under way

    about how to adapt the U.S. military to this new strategic environment, air and missile defense

    (AMD) forces have been all too absent from that conversation. Against near- peer threats, todays

    AMD force is unfortunately far too susceptible to suppression. One ave nue for transformation is

    with new and more imaginative operational concepts. More distributed AMD operations would

    improve their flexibility and resilience and in turn strengthen the broader joint force.


    Joint Staff and Ser vice publications have long pointed to the emergence of high- end technology

    threats, and some of those predictions have now materializ