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Creating cultural safety in speech-language and audiology services Jessica Ball University of Victoria

Creating cultural safety in speech-language and audiology services Jessica Ball University of Victoria

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Page 1: Creating cultural safety in speech-language and audiology services Jessica Ball University of Victoria

Creating cultural safety in speech-language and audiology services

Jessica Ball

University of Victoria

Page 2: Creating cultural safety in speech-language and audiology services Jessica Ball University of Victoria
Page 3: Creating cultural safety in speech-language and audiology services Jessica Ball University of Victoria

“Cultural safety”

What do we need to understand about some peoples’ sense of risk or danger when bringing themselves or a family member for screening, assessment or therapy?

What can we do to create culturally safe environments and encounters?

Page 4: Creating cultural safety in speech-language and audiology services Jessica Ball University of Victoria
Page 5: Creating cultural safety in speech-language and audiology services Jessica Ball University of Victoria
Page 6: Creating cultural safety in speech-language and audiology services Jessica Ball University of Victoria

Cultural safety in nursing practice

Maori origins: Dyck & Kearns; Papps & RamsdenUBC: Joan Anderson, Annette Brown, Vicki Smye, et al.U Sask: Verna St. DenisAssembly of First Nations Health Secretariat

Conceptualized within post-colonial, post-national, feminist discourses.Recognizing & re-dressing power inequities

Page 7: Creating cultural safety in speech-language and audiology services Jessica Ball University of Victoria

What do we mean by ‘culture’

Culture - not just ‘dress, dinner, decorations’!

- embodied in our identities, values, beliefs, life styles, and the ways we raise our children.

Screening and assessment tools and interventions methods

are cultural artifacts.

Page 8: Creating cultural safety in speech-language and audiology services Jessica Ball University of Victoria

Cultural un-safety: What is it?

A subjective sense that one’s cherished values, goals, language, identity & ways of life are denigrated or threatened in an encounter, or that one is being asked to venture into a foreign culture without knowing how to function in it and without positive accompaniment.

Page 9: Creating cultural safety in speech-language and audiology services Jessica Ball University of Victoria

Indicators of cultural un-safety

• ‘Denial’ of suggestions that there is a problem• Low utilization of available services• Low ‘compliance’ with service referrals or prescribed

interventions• Reticence in interactions with service providers• Anger• Low self-worth

Page 10: Creating cultural safety in speech-language and audiology services Jessica Ball University of Victoria

Deepening understandings: Two research studies

Problem: Perennial protests about lack of cultural relevance/appropriateness of tools & interventions transported from dominant culture to Indigenous children & families

Page 11: Creating cultural safety in speech-language and audiology services Jessica Ball University of Victoria

Study 1: Survey of 90 Aboriginal Early Childhood Programs about tools used. Funded by First Nations & Inuit Health Branch, Maternal & Child Health Branch

Study 2: In-depth exploration in 4 Indigenous communities of whether mainstream tools can support family goals for children’s development (63 parents; 42 child development practitioners)

Funded by Social Sciences & Humanities Research Council of Canada.

Page 12: Creating cultural safety in speech-language and audiology services Jessica Ball University of Victoria

Take home message: Process is a greater

determinant of outcomes than content

Page 13: Creating cultural safety in speech-language and audiology services Jessica Ball University of Victoria

It’s about the ways the tools are used

• The relationship context in which the tools are used (trust vs fear)

• Who decides a tool or intervention will be used

(consent?)

• What tools are used

• For what purposes (‘ammunition’, pathologizing,

apprehending??)

• What happens, or fails to happen, afterwards

• INCLUSION of key family members in the process.

Page 14: Creating cultural safety in speech-language and audiology services Jessica Ball University of Victoria

Acculturation / Assimilation through professional services

Contemporary context of rising:

• ‘Standardization’

• Universal surveillance

• ‘Best practice’ models

• One-size-fits-all

Technologies imported from the dominant (European heritage) culture

perpetuate colonial imposition of policies, procedures, criteria, performance

demands, and social exclusion of Indigenous caregivers of Indigenous

children

Page 15: Creating cultural safety in speech-language and audiology services Jessica Ball University of Victoria

How can our best intentions really seem so dangerous?

“My grandparents taught me that to truly understand the importance of something you must look back seven generations and you must look forward seven generations”

Debbie Jette

Cree Elder

Page 16: Creating cultural safety in speech-language and audiology services Jessica Ball University of Victoria

It’s about time!

(Chronosystem – Bronfenbrenner, 1979)

Once upon a time …pre-contact…intact cultures

Colonialism – disruption & resistance

Neo-colonialsm – resistance & healing

Silencing minority voices / Awakenings

Post-colonialism - revitalization of cultures

Post-nationalism – beyond racialization & us/ them

Page 17: Creating cultural safety in speech-language and audiology services Jessica Ball University of Victoria

Reflexive practice uses a critical, socio-historical perspective

Many Aboriginal parents want to preserve & protect their cultures and languages through child rearing & services

(16% Aboriginal children Canada exposed to Indig lang at home)

Protection of Indigenous language transmission falls within our scope of practice

Historical & ongoing significance of basing programs in schools, of government-contracted workers visiting in homes, of surveillance, or the words like “intervention” “disability” & “special needs”

Page 18: Creating cultural safety in speech-language and audiology services Jessica Ball University of Victoria

“A litany of woes”

“We hear a lot about what’s wrong with our kids. A lot of our kids know

things that white kids growing up in cities don’t know. About who

their ancestors are, and how they walked on this land. About living

with nature. About where their food comes from. If they haven’t

started learning the ABCs or having a big vocabulary by the time

they go to school, it doesn’t mean they’re off track in their

development.”

Avoid processes that inflame ongoing

negative stereotypes.

Page 19: Creating cultural safety in speech-language and audiology services Jessica Ball University of Victoria

Balanced perspective including strengths

“We believe that every child is a gift, and has gifts. Isn’t there some

way to use these observations to focus in on a child’s skills – what

they CAN do – because we could work with that. If they’re good at

cooking and they enjoy it, then they can be cooks. Not everyone has

to be brainy or a speaker in the Big House to be happy.”

Page 20: Creating cultural safety in speech-language and audiology services Jessica Ball University of Victoria

So, it’s all about Them?

• Culturally sensitive• Culturally appropriate• Culturally informed• Politically correct• Making space for the ‘Other’

Risk: ‘politics of guilt & resentment’ – polarities of ‘us & them’ / ‘perpetrators & victims’

Page 21: Creating cultural safety in speech-language and audiology services Jessica Ball University of Victoria

It’s about us!

Braiding histories & futures across cultural boundaries (post-nationalism)

Self-reflexivity – locating ourselves in terms of culture of origin, culture of choice, gender, age, income, education, creed

Individuals, families & communities, like ourselves, are diverse & hybrid.

Reflexive practice – understand the cultural embeddedness of our practice goals, methods, ‘norms’, frustrations, & what we construct as positive outcomes

Example:

English dialects – Do we interpret differences as defects?

Do we promote assimilation through insistence on the one and the only way?

Some First Nations ask us to preserve children’s home dialects of English while also teaching them to code switch into the English of the dominant culture (‘school English’)

Page 22: Creating cultural safety in speech-language and audiology services Jessica Ball University of Victoria
Page 23: Creating cultural safety in speech-language and audiology services Jessica Ball University of Victoria
Page 24: Creating cultural safety in speech-language and audiology services Jessica Ball University of Victoria

Cultural protocols

Seek cultural knowledge – ask questions

Show respect – ask permission

Demonstrate reciprocity – learning, services given & taken

Engage community accompaniment – find allies,

colleagues, mentors in community of practice

Page 25: Creating cultural safety in speech-language and audiology services Jessica Ball University of Victoria

Personal reflexiveness

Relational practice is founded on authentic encounters.

Locate ourselves on cultural continuums.

Introduce ourselves in terms of how our identities intersect many categories

“I learned to leave my baggage at the door. Stopped needing to be the answer woman. Became open to what these women, these children, these Elders had to teach me. What we had in common was our desire to see them learn and grow to their full potential. What we needed to figure out was how to work together to see that happen.” (BH)

Page 26: Creating cultural safety in speech-language and audiology services Jessica Ball University of Victoria

Process

Good process is culturally appropriate practiceGrounded in relationshipsPacing: Is this the right time to be offering this particular form of service?Family-centred

“I was contracted as an SLP to work at the band-operated preschool. I learned

patience! I had to wait for parents to feel comfortable with who I was and

why I was there. I sat quietly at the side of the room for a year before any

parents would engage in conversation with me. I had been there for two

years before I ever assessed an individual chld. But I had formed some

positive relationships and was familiar to the children by the time I started

delivering a service.” (AHF)

Page 27: Creating cultural safety in speech-language and audiology services Jessica Ball University of Victoria

Partnerships

Creating & negotiating relationships:• child• family members• community-based program staff• community leaders

Knowledge sharing vs. informingCollaborative problem solving vs. expert/authorityReciprocal learning / mutual capacity buildingCo-constructing ways to move supports into place

Page 28: Creating cultural safety in speech-language and audiology services Jessica Ball University of Victoria

Positive purpose

Awareness of colonial interventions that have depleted cultures, communities, & roles for families

Informed consent

Focus on strengths

Avoid negative labeling

Confidentiality

Accountability

The so-what? factor

Page 29: Creating cultural safety in speech-language and audiology services Jessica Ball University of Victoria

Make it matter

• Ensure there are real benefits that will follow from monitoring, screening or assessment.

• If few or no services, invest more in community-based capacity development than in screening & diagnosis

• Work with primary caregivers to enable them to support speech, language, hearing

– parents, guardians, other family members

– ECEs, Infant Development, Supported Child Development practitioners,nurses, teachers

• Navigator model (D. Olds) ensures a firm handshake between client and services needed

Page 30: Creating cultural safety in speech-language and audiology services Jessica Ball University of Victoria

Cultural safety is respectful engagement that

supports & protects many paths to wellbeing

“Finding our way to supporting wellness among diverse communities of children and families requires many pathways. No one approach, no one program model, will reach or work for everyone.”

Meadow Lake Tribal Council Administrator

Page 31: Creating cultural safety in speech-language and audiology services Jessica Ball University of Victoria

Find out more. . . . visit www.ecdip.org