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1 CS 265 Computer Architecture Wei Lu, Ph.D., P.Eng.

CS 265 Computer Architecture - Electrical engineeringwlu/teaching/cs265/slides/Lecture4-Introduction-I.pdf · Part 2: Introduction to Computer Architecture ... Movement Apparatus

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    CS 265

    Computer Architecture

    Wei Lu, Ph.D., P.Eng.

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    Part 2: Introduction to Computer Architecture

    Our goal:

    have a basic look at architecture of computer, its functions and structure, its history and its terminology

    Overview:

    what is a computer?

    computer organization vs. computer architecture?

    hierarchical structure of a computer?

    major functions of a computer?

    jargon on computer architecture

    history of computer evolution

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    What is Computer

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    What is a computer?

    Any system that accepts data, processes the data according

    to some instructions and produces some resultskeyboard

    mouse

    display

    disk / optical

    speakers

    .

    .

    .

    printer

    network

    telephone

    cable

    wireless

    other?

    .

    .

    .

    Computera Black Box system

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    What is a computer?

    At the most basic level, a computer is a device

    consisting of three pieces:

    - A processor to interpret and execute programs

    - A memory to store both data and programs

    - A mechanism for transferring data to and from the

    outside world

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    Hierarchical Structure of Computer

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    Hierarchical structure of a computer

    We apply a top-down approach to introduce computer architecture

    Computers consist of many things besides chips!

    User level: program execution on UI

    High-level language: programming

    Assembly language level: assembly

    code generated from level 5

    System software level: control

    executing process on the system

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    Hierarchical structure of a computer

    Machine level: a.k.a Instruction Set Architecture (ISA) level

    - consists of instructions that are particular to architecture of machine

    - programs written in machine language need no compilers, interpreters

    or assemblers

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    Hierarchical structure of a computer

    Control level:

    - A control unit decodes and executes instructions and moves data through the system

    - Control units can be microprogrammed or hardwired.

    - A microprogram is a program written in a low-level language that is implemented

    by the hardware; Hardwired control units consist of hardware that directly executes

    machine instructions

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    Hierarchical structure of a computer

    Digital logic level:

    - This level is where we find digital circuits (the chips).

    - Digital circuits consist of logic gates and wires.

    - These components implement the mathematical logic of all other

    levels.

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    Computer Architecture vs.

    Computer Organization

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    What is computer architecture?

    Refers to those logic attributes of a computer system implementation as

    seen by (visible to) a programmer, i.e. how we design a computer

    those logic attributes

    1. instruction sets

    2. number of bits used

    to represent various

    data types

    3. I/O mechanism

    4. techniques for

    addressing memory

    5. others, etc.

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    What is computer organization?

    Refers to all physical aspects of computer systems, including operational units and their interconnections that realize architectural specifications. Those physical hardware transparent to programmer:e.g. interfaces between computer and peripherals, or control signalsi.e. how does a computer work

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    Main Functions of Computer

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    In general term, the computer functions are:

    Process Data

    Store Data

    Move Data

    Control the function: coordinate how data is used

    Data

    Movement

    Apparatus

    Control

    Mechanism

    Data

    Storage

    Facility

    Data

    Processing

    Facility

    What functions of a computer?

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    Data movement:

    e.g. keyboard to screen

    Data

    Movement

    Apparatus

    Control

    Mechanism

    Data

    Storage

    Facility

    Data

    Processing

    Facility

    What functions of a computer?

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    Data storage:

    e.g. Internet download to disk

    Data

    Movement

    Apparatus

    Control

    Mechanism

    Data

    Storage

    Facility

    Data

    Processing

    Facility

    What functions of a computer?

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    Data processing from/to storage:

    e.g. updating bank statement

    Data

    Movement

    Apparatus

    Control

    Mechanism

    Data

    Storage

    Facility

    Data

    Processing

    Facility

    What functions of a computer?

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    Data processing from storage to I/O:

    e.g. printing a bank statement

    Data

    Movement

    Apparatus

    Control

    Mechanism

    Data

    Storage

    Facility

    Data

    Processing

    Facility

    What functions of a computer?

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    Thank you for your attendanceAny questions?