Customary Trade and Barter in Fish in the Seward Peninsula ... Final Report to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife

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  • Customary Trade and Barter in Fish in the Seward Peninsula Area, Alaska

    By

    James S. Magdanz,

    Sandra Tahbone,

    Austin Ahmasuk,

    David S. Koster,

    and

    Brian L. Davis

    Technical Paper No. 328

    August 2007

    Alaska Department of Fish and Game Division of Subsistence

  • Division of Subsistence Alaska Department of Fish and Game Juneau, Alaska

    August 2007

    Final Report to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Office of Subsistence Management, Fisheries Resource Monitor- ing Program, to fulfill obligations for Study No. 04-151 under contract number 701814C142.

    Technical Paper No. 328

    Customary Trade and Barter in Fish in the Seward Peninsula Area, Alaska

    by

    James S. Magdanz Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Division of Subsistence

    Sandra Tahbone Kawerak Inc., Department of Natural Resources

    Austin Ahmasuk Kawerak Inc., Department of Natural Resources

    David S. Koster Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Division of Subsistence

    Brian L. Davis Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Division of Subsistence

  • The Alaska Department of Fish and Game (ADF&G) administers all programs and activities free from discrimination based on race, color, national origin, age, sex, religion, marital status, pregnancy, parenthood, or disability. The depart- ment administers all programs and activities in compliance with Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, Title II of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, the Age Discrimination Act of 1975, and Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972.

    If you believe you have been discriminated against in any program, activity, or facility please write:

    • ADF&G ADA Coordinator, PO Box 115526, Juneau, AK 99811-5526. • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 4040 N. Fairfax Drive, Suite 300 Webb, Arlington, VA 22203 • Office of Equal Opportunity, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington DC 20240.

    The department’s ADA Coordinator can be reached via phone at the following numbers:

    (VOICE) 907-465-6077, (Statewide Telecommunication Device for the Deaf) 1-800-478-3648, (Juneau TDD) 907-465-3646, or (FAX) 907-465-6078.

    For information on alternative formats and questions on this publication, please contact:

    ADF&G, Division of Subsistence, Website: http://www.subsistence.adfg.state.ak.us/

    The Division of Subsistence Technical Paper Series was established in 1979 and represents the most complete collection of information about customary and traditional uses of fish and wildlife resources in Alaska. The papers cover all regions of the state. Some papers were written in response to specific fish and game management issues. Others provide detailed, basic information on the subsistence uses of particular communities which pertain to a large number of scientific and policy questions. Technical Paper Series reports are available through the Alaska State Library and on the Internet: http://www.subsistence.adfg.state.ak.us/geninfo/publctns/techpap.cfm

    James S. Magdanz Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Division of Subsistence

    Box 689, Kotzebue, AK 99752-0689 USA

    Sandra Tahbone and Austin Ahmasuk Kawerak Inc., Department of Natural Resources

    Box 948, Nome, AK 99762-0948 USA

    David S. Koster and Brian Davis Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Division of Subsistence,

    333 Raspberry Road, Anchorage, AK 99518-1599 USA

    This document should be cited as: Magdanz, J.S., S. Tahbone, A. Ahmasuk, D.S. Koster, and B.L. Davis. 2007. Customary trade and barter in subsistence fish in the Seward Peninsula area, Alaska. Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Division of Subsistence Technical Paper No. 328. Juneau.

    Revision Notes for the Second Printing

    November 2008

    Page iii: Figure numbering corrected. Figure 4-6 and Figure 4-7 both were labeled as Figure 4-5.

    Page 18: Figure 2-6 caption corrected. "Matilda Nayokpuk and James Magdanz talk with Elmer Olanna Seetot, manager of the store in Brevig Mission and a member of the Seward Peninsula Regional Advisory Council."

    Page 68: Figure 4-6 caption corrected. "Above right left, Ilulisaat hunters butcher a freshly caught minke whale in the community market, or Kalaalimineerniarfik."

    http://www.subsistence.adfg.state.ak.us/ http://www.subsistence.adfg.state.ak.us/geninfo/publctns/techpap.cfm

  • i

    Table of Contents

    List of Figures ................................................................................. ii List of Tables ...................................................................................iv List of Appendix Tables ..................................................................iv Abstract ............................................................................................v Introduction ......................................................................................1 Background ..................................................................................3 Rationale and Literature Review ..................................................7 Presentation ................................................................................10

    Methods ..........................................................................................11 Personnel and Schedule .............................................................11 Consultations..............................................................................12 Samples ......................................................................................13 Data Collection ..........................................................................15 Data Analysis .............................................................................18

    Results ............................................................................................21 Characteristics of the Surveyed Households ..............................22 Brevig Mission ...........................................................................24 Elim ............................................................................................29 Nome ..........................................................................................34 Shaktoolik ..................................................................................37 Saint Michael .............................................................................41 Stebbins ......................................................................................46 All Communities ........................................................................48

    Summary and Discussion ...............................................................57 Trade and Barter in the Seward Peninsula Area .........................61 Discussion ..................................................................................66 Conclusion .................................................................................70 Recommendations ......................................................................72

    Acknowledgments ..........................................................................75 Literature Cited ..............................................................................76 Appendix 1: Appendix Tables ........................................................81 Appendix 2: Selected Federal Statutes and Regulations ................91 Appendix 3: Selected State Statutes and Regulations ....................95 Appendix 4: Customary Trade Poster ............................................99 Appendix 5: Presentation Used For Elim Meeting ......................103 Appendix 6: Survey Instrument ...................................................107 Appendix 7: Alaska Board of Fisheries Action ............................123

  • ii

    List of Figures

    Figure 1-1 Dried salmon in Elim ...................................................1

    Figure 1-2 Northwest Alaska .........................................................2

    Figure 1-3 Subsistene Fish for Sale in Nome, August 2002 ..........7

    Figure 2-1 Community Meeting Poster .......................................11

    Figure 2-2 Community Researcher, Matilda Nauyukpuk ............12

    Figure 2-3 Samples in five smaller communities ........................15

    Figure 2-4 Community Meeting, Shaktoolik ...............................16

    Figure 2-5 Survey Administration, Elim ......................................17

    Figure 2-6 Interview, Brevig Mission ..........................................18

    Figure 3-1 Study Household Demographics ................................22

    Figure 3-2 Study Household Income Ranges ..............................23

    Figure 3-3 Trade and Barter Network, Brevig Mission, 2004 .....26

    Figure 3-4 Trade and Barter Amounts, Brevig Mission, 2004 ....27

    Figure 3-5 Trade and Barter Amounts Elim, 2004 ......................29

    Figure 3-6 King Crab, Elim, 2005 ...............................................30

    Figure 3-7 Trade and Barter Network, Elim, 2004 ......................31

    Figure 3-8 Elim, March, 2005 .....................................................33

    Figure 3-9 Trade and Barter Amounts, Nome, 2004 ...................35

    Figure 3-10 Trade and Barter Network, Nome, 2004 ....................36

    Figure 3-11 Trade and Barter Amounts, Shaktoolik, 2004. ...........38

    Figure 3-12 Trade and Barter Network, Shaktoolik,