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Cyclic fingerings for arpeggios and scales for the violin Item Type text; Thesis-Reproduction (electronic) Authors Ridgely, Charlie Vere, 1886- Publisher The University of Arizona. Rights Copyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author. Download date 22/04/2018 13:49:38 Link to Item http://hdl.handle.net/10150/553769

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Cyclic fingerings for arpeggios and scales for the violin

Item Type text; Thesis-Reproduction (electronic)

Authors Ridgely, Charlie Vere, 1886-

Publisher The University of Arizona.

Rights Copyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this materialis made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona.Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such aspublic display or performance) of protected items is prohibitedexcept with permission of the author.

Download date 22/04/2018 13:49:38

Link to Item http://hdl.handle.net/10150/553769

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CYCLIC FINGERINGS FOR ARPEGGIOS AND SCALES

FOR THE VIOLIN

by

Charlie V. Ridgely

A Thesis

submitted to the fa c u l ty of the

Department of Music

in p a r t i a l fu lf i l lm en t of the requirements fo r the degree of

MASTER OF MUSIC

. in the Graduate C ollege, University of Arizona

19U9

Approved:.rec to r o. s is bate

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E 9 7 9 Ir

T 5 3

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CYCLIC FINGERINGS GF ARPEGGIOS (Major and Minor Triads)Page

A. ROOT POSITIONS................................................................. . ..................... 1

(A-l) With the f i r s t f inger on the chord roots and f i f t h s . . .(A-2) With the second f inger on the chord roots and f i f t h s . . .(A-3) With the th i r d f inger on the chord roots and f i f th s . . .(1-U) With the th i rd f inger on the chord roots and f i f th s . . .

(Roots -with f i f th s in th i s type are not fingered . . .as double s tops .) .........................................................................

(A-5) A spread of th ree f u l l octaves and in some casesfour f u l l octaves i s permitted with one departurefrom the cycle .................................................................................

(A-6) DOUBLE STOP POSSIBILITIES using the fingerings of(A-l,2 ,3 ,li,S) .................................................................................

(A-7) With the fourth f inger on the roots and f i f t h s .....................

B. FIRST INVERSIONS

(B-l) With the f i r s t f inger on the chord t h i r d s .............................(B-2) With the second f inger on the chord th ird s . . . . . . . .(B-3) With the th i r d f in g e r on the chord th ird s .............................(B-lt) With the fourth f inger on the* chord t h i r d s ............................ 10

C. SECOND INVERSIONS

(C-l) With the f i r s t f inger on the chord f i f t h s ............................ 10(C-2) With the second f inger on the chord f i f t h s ......................... . 11(C-3) With the th i r d f in g e r on the chord f i f t h s ............................ 11(C-U) With the fourth f inger on the chord f i f t h s ............................ 12

D. DOUBLE STOP POSSIBILITIES from the fingerings of sections (A,B,C) 12

E. RESUME AND SIMPLIFICATION of Sections (A,B,C and D . ) .......................... 12

F. THE USE OF "HELP TONES" ( fo r ascending arpeggios) ..................... . lit

G. THE USE OF "HELP TONES" ( fo r descending arpeggios) ............................. 1$

H. DOUBLE STOPS (using fingerings of sections F and G ......................... 16

I . DIATONIC SCALES AND CYCLIC FINGERINGS..................................................... 17

- ( l - l ) Ascending Major Scales ... ............................................................ 17(1-2) Descending Major S c a l e s ................................................................ 18(1-3) Melodic Minor Scales ................................................................ 18(l-Ii) Harmonic Minor Scales ................................................................ 18(1-5) Examples of cyclic fingerings of extended s c a l e s ................ 18(1-6) The Milder Major Mode and Cyclic F in g e r in g ............................ 19( l -7 ) The Pentatonic Scale and Cyclic F i n g e r i n g ............................ 19

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II

‘ TABLE OF CONTENTS (Con’t . ) ,

PageCYCLIC FINGERINGS FOR DIATONIC SEVENTH CHORDS

J . LIMITING FACTORS.................................... 20

( j - l ) Seventh chords of the major m o d e .......................... 20(J-2 ) Seventh chords of the harmonic minor mode . . . . . . . 21(J-3) Seventh chords of the melodic minor m o d e .......... 22(J-li) Seventh chords of the milder major mode .......................... 22

K. CYCLIC FINGERINGS FOR AUGMENTED TRIADS. (A scend ing)................... 23

L. CYCLIC FINGERINGS FOR DIMINISHED TRIADS. ( A s c e n d in g ) ................. 2J

M. CYCLIC FINGERINGS FOR DIATONIC AUGMENTED TRIADS. (Descending) . 2k

N. CYCLIC FINGERINGS FOR DIATONIC DIMINISHED TRIADS. (Descending) . 2k

O. AUGMENTED AND DIMINISHED FOURTHS AS HELP TONES » * ..................... 2$

P. AUGMENTED'AND DIMINISHED FOURTH DIRECT SHIFTS ............................. 26

Q. CYCLIC ARPEGGIOS AND SCALES WITH EMBELLISHMENTS............................. 26

(Q-l) Auxiliary notes o ................................................ 26(Q-2) T r i l l s 27(Q-3) Appogiaturas ........................................................................ 27(Q-U) Surrounding tones .................................................................... 27(0-5) Passing notes ................................................................... 27(Q-6) Added tones 28

R. CYCLIC FINGERINGS FOR SCALES IN DOUBLE STOPS.................................... 28

SUMMARY 0 o o . . . . . . ................................................................................. 29

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I l l

A STUDY OFCYCLIC FINGERINGS OF DIATONIC ARPEGGIOS AND SCALES

FOR THE VIOLIN

INTRODUCTION

There has long been a need fo r some simple devising which would permit

bowed s tr in g in s trum en ta lis ts to take advantage of re p e t i t iv e o r cyclic ma­

neuvers, by the octave, in extended scales and arpeggios.

The prevalent fingerings fo r such passages through two o r three octaves

has each octave fingered d i f fe re n t ly and with g rea t v a r ie ty of place o f

sh if t in g and of the sh if t in g in te rv a ls . The "muscle memory* required to do

any three octave scale o r arpeggio on a bowed s tr in g instrument i s qu ite a

f e a t . The p rec ise physical and au ra l controls f o r each p itch and each s h i f t

are most demanding. I f the time element requires grea t speed the problem

approaches the impossible©

Every musician wishes to be ab le to ."get over" h is instrument with ce­

l e r i t y . But l i f e and patience are too short f o r most o f us to have time to

acquire good scale and arpeggio technic from the usual instructions© I t i s

notable th a t a very low percentage of v io lin students progress to an a b i l i t y

eqpal to the needs of elementary so los,, ensembles o r orchestras© There can

be a m u lt ip l ic i ty of reasons why any p a r t ic u la r student drops h is instrument;

but a very common cause could be a t t r ib u te d to lack o f techn ica l promise from

fa i lu re s to manage prescribed bu t not too well organized fingerings© The

study of an instrument as intim ate and d i f f i c u l t as the v io l in demands suc­

cess of sa t is fa c to ry accomplishment from the drudgery of p rac tic ing endlessly

the conventional fingerings as exemplified by Schradieck, Hrimaly and a host

of o thers .

This harassing s i tu a t io n has long p e rs is ted .

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IV

The w r i te r has been in charge of school and college music departments fo r

many years and fe e ls th a t the foregoing techn ical d i f f i c u l t i e s explain to some

extent why good school and college orchestras are so few, and the elimination

of p o te n t ia l ly able students i s so frequent.

The w r i te r ’s many years of teaching gave him cause and opportunity to get

v io l in students and orchestras over t h e i r instruments.

The devices here l i s t e d have been successfu lly used with indiv iduals and

groups. Written descrip tions o r explanations can not have the m erits of per­

sonal demonstrations nor of pe rscrip tions to f i t needs as they appear.

This th e s is does not pretend to be a panacea fo r a l l the troubles of

v io l in i s t s . I f i t removes, f o r some, one se t of stumbling blocks and discour­

agements i t w i l l have served i t s purpose.

ARGUMENT

The fingerings and sh if t in g s here l i s t e d are conventional with the excep­

t io n of some uses of "extensions."

The groupings of those fingerings and sh if t in g s together with applica tions

in ways of doing arpeggios and scales are o r ig in a l . Another claim to o r ig ina l­

i t y and ingenuity i s the compact way in which many of the m ateria ls and problems

are tabu la ted .

P ro tes ts from those in s tru c to rs and players who were reared in the "old

school" are an tic ip a ted . The condemnation of anything a t variance with respect­

able age and hab its i s to be expected.

( I t i s hoped th a t the examples are adequate fo r t h i s type of th e s is . I t

i s my in ten t to expand-the examples and copyright the m ateria ls herein fo r pub­

l ic a t io n . )

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CYCLIC FINGERINGS o f ARPEGGIOS f o r th e VIOLIN

A -ROOT POSITION MAJOR and MINOR TRIADS:( A - I ) w i th t h e F i r s t F in g e r on th e ROOTS"and Chord F i f t h s . and w i th D i r e c t S h i f t s by th e F i r s t F i n d e r .(Roman n u m e ra ls r e f e r t o s t r i n g s . A r a b i c f i g u r e s r e f e r t o f i n g e r s . )( I -------- The s t r i n g re m a in s f i r m l y s to p p ed by th e numbered f i n g e r t o th eend o f th e l i n e . )

-rj -------- The f i n g e r s to p s two s t r i n g s t o th e l i n e s e n d . )

( f ) -M e a n s t o s h i f t . T h e f i n g e r g l i s s a n d o s w i th f i r m and s t e a d y p r e s s u r e .

i I S I g I IS I I S II S II I — TV—I I —— I l l —IV—

N o t e . I . A l l d i r e c t s h i f t m ajo r and m ino r t r i a d s done w i t h t h i s ty p e o f c y c l i c f i n g e r i n g r e q u i r e p e r f e c t f o u r t h s h i f t s . P r e l im i n a r y e x e r c i s e s f o r e a c h o f th e f o u r f i n g e r s a r e i n d i c a t e d , u s i n g th e p e r f e c t f o u r t h a b o r t w hich t o d e v i s e o r i g i n a l e x e r c i s e s . A few sam p les f o l lo w .

I l l ————— I I ———— I I I ————— . I I ———— I I I ——I I —————— I I I ——

N o t e .2 . Though d i f f i c u l t f o r m ost v i o l i n i s t s , t r u e p e r f e c t f i f t h s a r e nm v s ts n f o r m a jo r and m inor t r i a d s . I t i s s u g g e s te d t h a t th e f o l lo w in g exam ples f i r s t be ch eck ed f o r i n t o n a t i o n . A f t e r w a r d s , e a c h f i n g e r sh o u ld be exam ined i n i t s t i p ' s p la c e m e n t on th e s t r i n g s . In m ost c a s e s th e r e a s o n f o r f a u l t y f i f t h s w i l l be o b v io u s .

2 2 3 4 4 4. I I 2 2 3 4 4

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I IIV I I I I I IV I I I I I IV I I I I I IV I I I I I IV I I I I I IV I I I I I

N o te . 3 . One r e a s o n f o r bad f i f t h s i s t h a t many f i n g e r t i p s when p r e s s e d upon two s t r i n g s have e l i p t i c a l sh ap ed pads w hich do n o t have t h e i r a x e s a t r i g h t a n g le s t o t h e s t r i n g s .

One rem edy i s t o p u t more p r e s s u r e on th e p la c e f o r th e p i t c h w h ich seems to o low . T h is .c a u se s t h e t i p t o s p re a d a t t h a t p l a c e c o v e r in g more s t r i n g , t h u s r a i s i n g th e p i t c h .

A no the r e f f e c t i v e rem edy i s t o e l e v a t e t h e l e f t w r i s t , i n w hich p o s ­t u r e t h e f i n g e r s w i l l s t r i k e th e s t r i n g s a t an a n g le to w a rd s t h e palm o f th e h a n d .T h is w i l l s t r e t c h th e lo w e r s t r i n g , r a i s i n g i t s p i t c h .

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2The s p r e a d in g o f t h e s t r i n g s to w a rd s th e b r i d g e makes d o u b le s to p p e r f e c t

f i f t h s e x t r e m e ly d i f f i c u l t i n th e h ig h e r p o s i t i o n s . F o r t h e m , l a r g e f i n g e r t i n s have a d v a n ta g e . A p o s s i b l e remedy f o r t h i s i s t o have th e n u t and th e b r id g e so n o tc h e d t h a t t h e s t r i n g s a r e n o t so d i v e r g e n t .

N o te .4 . The above exam ples sh o u ld be done w i t h e x a c t l y t h e same f i n g e r s and on th e same s t r i n g s a s th e t r i a d on page ( l ) . A l l r o o t p o s i t i o n m ajo r and m inor t r i a d s , s t a r t i n g w i t h th e v i o l i n ’ s low Ab and up to t h e secondl i n e G ,sh o u ld be done i n t h i s m an n e r . P r a c t i c a l i n t e r e s t may be m a in ta in e d by u s in g a v a r i e t y o f te m p i , rh y th m s and b o w in g s . S l u r s a c r o s s th e s h i f t a r e a lm o s t n e c e s s a r y f o r f i r s t p r a c t i c e , a s t h e s t r i n g l e n g t h o f th e s h i f t i s t h u s c h e c k e d .

In t h e above e x a m p le s , th e f i n g e r s ' s p re a d o r s p a n ( 1 s t t o 3 rd f i n ­gers)) v a r i e s g r e a t l y . T h e second m e a s u r e s ’ span b e in g n e a r two t h i r d s t h a t o f th e f i r s t m e a s u r e s . The t h i r d m e a s u r e s ’ s p a n ' a r e n o t q u i t e one h a l f t h a t o f t h e f i r s t m e a s u r e s .T h is o f c o u r s e f o r e a c h t r i a d .

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(A- 8 ) Second f i n g e r on th e r o o t s and c h o rd f i f t h s . D i r e c t s h i f t s w i t h t h e second f i n g e r (The i d e a s o f ( A - I ) a p p ly .

, n i r - s

2 4 2J V«. air—J J J — — —

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4(A-3 ) T h ird f i n g e r on th e r o o t s and cho rd f i f t h s .

In o r d e r t o com ply w i t h an i m p l i c a t i o n i n ( A - I ) a n d ( A - 2 ) , t h a t th e f i f t h s be done a s d o u b le s t o p s ^ i t w i l l be n e c e s s a r y in t h i s ty p e to f i n ­g e r t h e c h o rd t h i r d s w i t h th e e x te n d e d f o u r t h f i n g e r .

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(A-4) T h ird f i n g e r on th e r o o t s and cho rd f i f t h s . T h i s manner d o es n o t vse t h e e x te n d e d f o u r t h f i n g e r n o r a r e t h e r o o t s and f i f t h s done a s d o u b le s t o p s .

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V 6(A -5 ) Each o f t h e c y c l i c f i n g e r i n g s , j u s t g i v e s , h a s a p i t c h s p re a d o f two o c t a v e s and a f i f t h .N o t e .5 . A d e p a r t u r e from th e c y c l i c f i n g e r i n g s . j u s t g i v e n ,p e r m i t s a cho rd p i t c h s p re a d o f t h r e e f u l l o c t a v e s . In e a c h - c a s e a p e r f e c t f o u r t h i s added above t h e c y c l e .

Fo r t y p e ( A - l ) t h e f o u r t h f i n g e r i s a d d e d .For t y p e ( A - s ) The f o u r t h f i n g e r i s e x t e n d e d .For t y p e s (A -3 )a n d (A - 'i ) a d o u b le f o u r t h f i n g e r e x t e n t ! o n i s n e c e s s -

. a r y .One exam ple o f e a c h ty p e f o l l o w s .

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7(A -6 )Double S top o c t a v e s , p e r f e c t f i f t h s , m a j o r and m inor t h i r d s and m ajo r and m inor s i x t h s a r e c o n ta in e d i n t h e f i n g e r i n n a r r a n g e m e n ts o f (A -1 .8 ; :5 ,4 and 5 ) .E x a m p le s ; -----

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8

( A -7 )F o u r th f i n g e r on r o o t s and cho rd f i f t h s . T h is ty p e d o e s n o t p e rm it t h e d o u b le s t o p f i n g e r i n g s o f t h e p e r f e c t f i f t h s i n s i n g l e v o ic e c r p e g -

Exam ples

4 %.

('B)-FIRST INVERSION MAJOR and MINOR TRIADS.(B -I ) W ith t h e f i r s t f i n g e r on th e c h o rd t h i r d s .

W ith d i r e c t s h i f t s on th e t h i r d f i n g e r .

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1U S 5 I 3S3 M 3S3 I 3S3 I 3«$ 5 t 3S3 1 Z— — I ---------------------- 3T---- m --------- IS---

(B-S) W ith th e second f i n g e r on th e c h o rd t h i r d s . W ith d i r e c t s h i f t s on th e f o u r t h f i n g e r

2 mm m i t-i j .i a t e E 5t e S I e

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m - U J L J t U L(B -3 )W ith th e t h i r d f i n g e r on th e c h o rd t h i r d . ; .

W ith d i r e c t s h i f t s on th e f i r s t f i n g e r .

T 1 f r k |k , ' f | n - r # T r R f I3 / $ I —SI 3 3 IS I—£13 -x- 3 IS l—JI 3

M — :— J C 1 1 ----------- 1 * K X -------------- 1

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(B-4) W ith t h e f o u r t h f i n g e r on th e c h o rd t h i r d s . ^ - V

If X$A—5l 4 H xSx—Sxn. )j-iSlr~SXU. E m -----— 37 M -------- ± I X --------- I t t l --------- 3

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A JO . H U i 4 A $ X ,

(C - I )W ith t h e f i r s t f i n g e r on th e Chord f i f t h s and r o o t s . W ith d i r e c t s h i f t s on th e f i r s t f i n g e r .

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3 i i \ 3 I$1 3151 ISI 3 IS I 3 ISt 3 <51 ) 3I?I 3 151 3 151 * uT i -----k — nr— h —m— it— i ----------- n— m— if— •

(C-2) W ith th e se co n d f i n g e r on th e cho rd f i f t h s and r o o t s . W ith d i r e c t s h i f t s on th e second f i n g e r .

m mi 4 . 1 1 " 1 4 I....................

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(C -3) W ith t h e t h i r d f i n g e r on th e c h o rd f i f t h s and r o o t s . W ith d i r e c t s h i f t s 4>n th e t h i r d f i n g e r .

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12

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(C-4) W ith t h e f o u r t h f i n g e r on th e c h o rd f i f t h s and r o o t s .W ith d i r e c t s h i f t s on th e f o u r t h f i n g e r .

I/ l

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T5

13

A ^ 3 3 4 HA l l o f th e tw e lv e m odels r e p e a t i n th e o c ta v e and th e d o u b le o c ta v e

a b o v e . The o n ly d o u b le s to p s p o s s i b l e w i t h t h e s e f i n g e r i n g p a t t e r n s a r e o c t a v e s , p e r f e c t f i f t h s , m a j o r t h i r d s and m inor t h i r d s .

(E) RESUME and SIMPLIFICATION o f SECTIONS (A,B.C and D) o f C y c l ic F i n g e r ­in g s (by th e o c t a v e ) o f M ajor and Minor T r i a d s f o r th e V i o l i n .

Twelve f i n g e r i n g a r r a n g e m e n ts have been c i t e d , t o g e t h e r w i t h s u g g e s t i o n s o f p r a c t i c e n e e d s o f a t t e n t i o n t o i n t o n a t i o n , r h y t h m s e t c . , w h i c h may be e x ­p e c te d t o im prove r e c o g n i t i o n , t e m p i and a s s u r a n c e .

A l l o f t h e s e f i n g e r i n g a r ra n g e m e n ts have i n common th e d i r e c t s h i f t o f t h e p e r f e c t f o u r t h .T h e p e r f e c t f o u r t h i s n o t a problem f o r b e g i n n e r s .

(Some s u r p r i s i n g r e s u l t s have been h a d ,u s i n g c y c l i c f i n g e r i n g s , w i t h c h i l d r e n who have had a s l i t t l e a s s i x m onths i n s t r u c t i o n on v i o l i n . Ex­a m p le ;— Any one o f t h e tw e lv e a r r a n g e m e n ts was d r i l l e d f o r a few m om ents; - t h e p u p i l was a sk e d t o r e p e a t th e p a t t e r n u p w a rd s ; -a n d th e t h i n g was d o n e . In t h i s scheme a u r a l r e c o g n i t i o n and p h y s i c a l a d a p t a b i l i t y a r e m i l e s ahead o f th e v i s u a l r e c o g n i t i o n o r u n d e r s t a n d in g o f t h e n o te s y m b o ls . )

S i m p l i f i c a t i o n ; -O n ly f o u r c o n t r o l g ro u p s a r e n e c e s s a r y , f o r th e above p rob lem s i f c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f rh y th m ic g r o u p in g s a r e d r o p p e d ,a s th e f o l l o w -

A rran g em en ts ( l ) (7r) (S) s h i f t w i t h t h e f o u r t h f i n ­g e r and u s e th e same f i n g e r s n o t e f o r n o t e .

A r ra n g e m e n ts ( 2 ) ( 8 ) ( 1 0 ) s h i f t w i t h t h e t h i r d f i n g e r and u s e t h e same f i n g e r s n o te f o r n o t e .

A r ra n g e m e n ts ( 3 ) ( 5 ) (IT ) s h i f t on th e second f i n g e r and u s e th e same f i n g e r s

_____________________________________________________ n o te f o r n o t e .Second i n v e r s i o n 4 S 4 2 4 — (9) A r ra n g e m e n ts ( 4 ) ( 6 ) ( 1 2 )f i n g e r i n g s . 3 S 3 I 3— ( 1 0 ) s h i f t on th e f i r s t f i n g e r

2 £ 2 - 4 2 — ( I I )and u s e t h e same f i n g e r s .________________________________ I S T 3 I — ( I 2 ) n o te f o r n o t e .

A no the r s i m p l i f i c a t i o n would be t o g iv e t h e m ost a c t i v e a t t e n t i o n t o t h e need o f a d i r e c t s h i f t on e a c h i n t e r v a l o f a p e r f e c t f o u r t h ' .T h i s m eth ­od i s s im p le r f o r b e g in n e r s who do n o t have t o c o n te n d w i t h f a s t t e m p i . .

i n g w i l l show. ^

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(F) -THE USE o f nHELP TONESnin CYCLIC FINGERINGS f o r ASCENDING ARPEGGIOS

IN MAJOR and MINOR TRIADS. :

J w i l l be u se d h e re a s th e symbol f o r th e h e lp t o n e s .In t h e s e exam ples t h e " h e l p to n e " s h o u ld be made i n e a c h c a s e w i th th e

same f i n g e r w hich made t h e l a s t n o te i n t h e o ld p o s i t i o n . l t i s a d v i s a b l e t h a t e a c h s h i f t t o a h e lp to n e be a d i a t o n i c p e r f e c t f o u r t h ; a s t h o s e f o u r t h s w i l l be l e s s d i s t u r b i n g and more c e r t a i n t o be c o r r e c t l y h e a rd th a n augm ented f o u r t h s .

T h e " h e lp t o n e s nw i l l f a l l upon e i t h e r th e n o t e s a d e g re e above t h e ch o rd f i f t h s o r a d e g re e above th e cho rd t h i r d s .

-'A random c h o ic e o f t r i a d s f o r th e exam ples f o l lo w s in t h i s o r d e r .Root p o s i t i o n ------ t r i a d s s t a r t i n g w i t h f i r s t t s e c o n d , t h i r d , f o u r t h f i n g e r .F i r s t i n v e r s i o n t r i a d s Second i n v e r s i o n t r i a d s

T h is i s d i a t o n i c b u t awkward.

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I l r 4< r l.5.$«- I 4 xsx i 4 IF— — nt

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Jjr

J t f f f r ^ - f | .1J 1l ) I 4DC----- 2T-

*54 3. I W 31if — nr— z

f i r ; r j | f ivF- j ^ g* ISA I If 2S3- ITTHT--------- H-

v 1 mil J 1 ntiL3 , i L«. 1 „ . , l7» % . . -I 45# 3 f 4S*3 I ♦ 'a-Si / H x IT--------TL------ - DL—Z'--------XA I 5 5 ) A l dH I ------- X

$11 j

5 ) iSX IM M ------- Z---- ^ " 4 4 . 3 S 3 * ' H 3 $ 3 t .31 nr----- 2:'

(G) THR USE of^HELP TONEG"ln CYCLIC FINGERINGS f o r DE.'CBNDIHG ARPRCHTOS

i n MAJOR and MINOR TRIADS.

T h e^ h e lp t o n e s " w i l l f a l l upon th e n o te a d e g re e below th e cho rd t h i r d o r t h e d e g re e below th e cho rd r o o t .

j W [,(1' r | J j 1 1 n ■’ IXSX 3 | 3T----— SS 3 H X 3 j 3 4 X

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pH { i i z 4 ~ ij r m --------- e — SS3 HI Mi 4 I

M H-3 I 2. j «. 5 l z. I — S E ------------------ f f i

f ^ ■ i 4 1 T M . f i l f j iJ 4 a T i s 1 I S I z ' f tSX3 Z$1 3 ^

±t

Jt % 3 6 ) 4 A E — M----- — JZ

#Am mE r S

r i 3?) %tz-----nr------ I 3f3 A I S3 X i s n l I xtx 3 /yZsuai^s <tr------ x---- *-------- - jr——nr ir^—

A.Z,-i-V f l l f i j - f l f t l l ^ l f m i

z l s « 3 l .U S 4 3 1 S H Z > 6 3 H X ^ c . . -------- it—— m------ a

(H) DOUBLE STOPS.USING th e SHIFTING and FINGERIT’GL EXPLAINED in fKCTrOVS

(F )and (G )|»qrf> c o n f in e d t o p e r f e c t f o u r t h s .malt o r and m inor t M r d s ar ' m a jo r

and m in o r s i x t h s . A few exam ples f o l lo w .

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17

( I ) DIATONIC SCALES and CYCLIC FINGERING bv t h e o c ta v e .ASCENDING MAJOR SCALES.Examples w i l l s u f f i c e i f th e y a r e an o c ta v e o r more in e x t e n t .

To keep w i t h i n t h e p l a n ( t h u s f a r ) o f u s in g o n ly p e r f e c t f o u r t h s h i f t t h e s h i f t may s t a r t on any to n e e x c e p t th e su b d o m in an t .

The s c a l e p a ssa g e may s t a r t on any n o te o f t h e s c a l e , th e s h i f t s c an be made w i th th e t h i r d o r f o u r t h f i n g e r s .

Th l s l i t t l e c h a r t r e p r e s e n t s f f f f & e n m ajo r 4cey/, w i t h t h r e e f i n g e r i n g s f o r e a c h k e y . Some o f th e keys w i l l n o t g iv e p e r f e c t f o u r t h s h i f t s a s m a rk e d ;fo r e x a m p le , th e f i r s t s h i f t l i s t e d w i l l g iv e an augm en t­ed f o u r t h i n th e k eys of(A ) and (A b ) .

The same a p p l i e s t o t h e t h r e e f o l lo w in g c h a r t s f o r may be u s e d . .

4 t x 3 wx. 3 4w h ich any key s i ^ n a -

33 i f x 3 4|/|X.5 z & l f s t , 3 3 3 4 / *3 1 3 33 £ Z 4 33 1 X,3 l 3 u 1 1

I Z 32, / 1 3 u

mmj i t ]z 3 /,

8

i \ I z \ % ! I V &

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(1 -2 ) DESCENDING MAJOR SCAIiSf.The rem ark s o f ( I ) a p p l y , e x c e p t t h a t th e s h i f t s a r e t o be made wi t i ­

th e f i r s t and second f i n g e r s . •

(1 -3 ) MELODIC MINOR r-'CALi.r. The p ro c e e d in g n o t e s a p p ly .I f t h e s h i f t s a r e t o be d i a t o n i c p e r f e c t f o u r t h s , t h e shape o f th e

s c a l e form d i c t a t e s t h a t i n th e a s c e n d in g m elod ic form s h i f t s from th e m e d ia n t , s u b - d o m in a n t and th e l e a d i n g to n e a r e n o t u s a b l e ; a n d in th e d e s c e n ­d in g form th e s h i f t from t h e . s u p e r t o n i c i s n o t u s a b l e .

(1 -4 ) HARMONIC MINOR SCALfco. I n t h i s s c a l e form i t i s t o be n o te d t h a t th e a s c e n d in g s c a l e has augm ented f o u r t h s on th e subdom inan t and th e submed­i a n t and a d im in i s h e d f o u r t h on th e l e a d in g t o n e : - t h e d e s c e n d in g s c a l e has augm ented f o u r t h s below th e s u p e r t o n i c and th e l e a d i n g to n e s and a d im ­i n i s h e d f o u r t h below th e m e d ia n t .

(1 -5 ) Examples o f c y c l i c f i n g e r i n g s f o r d i a t o n i c s c a l e s w hich a r e e x te n d e d

j l t f J J -T| J l A I1, 331 X 3 4 I 3 1i , 3 i l X M I

I X 3 H I 133 13 I

31 *, 3

V 3 I n X f i ____! 11 C 4 4 t l 1 4 # LL 1 4 4 k 5 # *3 < x s q ifX— $ 3 Ik* i x i *3 i i 4 3 i) H i XX b 3 x \ k *> x x

F r u df. i n j 4 1, 1'r?M 3 ZZ4 1 z l ^ 3 3 ^ Tq 3 Z t t 3 ZZ 4- *> X i 3 Z, l

h=F

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3 i W f 3 L A # 3 t I W ' z . ' x * 3 Z, l H 3

$XXIm

TT F * 5

The f i n g e r i n g c i t e d f o r th e above a s c e n d in g m e lo d ic u s e s th e low er su b m e d ia n t a s nh e lp t o n e t T h i s may be done a s r e a s o n a b le b o rro w in g w ithou t, d i s t u r b i n g th e t o n a l i t y .

( I - 6 ^The MILDER MAJOR M O D E ^ascending ,perm its d i a t o n i c p e r f e c t f o u r t h s h i f t s from th e t o n i c , s u p e r t o n i c , d o m i n a n t p e r f e c t f o u r t h s h i f t s a r e p e r m i t t e d and m e d ia n t .£ m m

and l e a d i n g t o n e ; - d e s c e n d i n g , - d i a t o m i c from th e t o n ic ,d o m in a n t , s u b d o m in a n t

r1 - m:m m

( I - T h e PENTATONIC SCALE:-Using th e p e n ta to n i c s c a l e w i th d i a t o n i c p e r f e c t f o u r t h s h i f t s p e rm i ts th e s h i f t s , i n t h e a s c e n d in g s c a l e , t o be fiN^m th e 2n d , 3 r d , 4 t h and f i f t h n o t e s ; — d e s c e n d in d , f ro m th e 2 n d , 1 s t , 5 t h and 4ph n o t e s .

/ 2 / 3 t x. X I S' * 3 ^ , /

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20CYCLIC FINGERINGS FOR DIATONIC SEVENTH CHORDS.( J ) LIMITING FACTOR

(1) For th e p r e s e n t a l l s h i f t s a r e t o be d i a t o n i c p e r f e c t f o u r t h s .(2) B ecause o f awkward e x t r a c h an g e s o f s t r i n g s th e f i r s t f i n g e r w i l l

n o t be u se d a s a s h i f t i n g f i n g e r i n a s c e n d in g s e v e n th c h o rd a r p e g g i o s j n o r w i l l t h e f o u r t h f i n g e r be u se d a s a s h i f t i n g f i n g e r i n d e s c e n d in g s e v e n th c h o rd a r p e g g i o s . 4

(5) The seco n d f i n g e r can n o t be u s e d a s s h i f t i n g f i n g e r i n a s c e n d in g from th e c h o rd s e v e n t h s ; - n o r c an th e t h i r d f i n g e r be u se d a s t h e s h i f t i n g f i n g e r i n d e s c e n d in g from t h e c h o rd r o o t s .

(4) Some s e v e n t h c h o rd s have s e v e r a l s h i f t i n g s and comply w i t h ( I ) , (2) a n d ( 3 ) .The p r e f e r e n c e may b e ^ e r t h e one w h ich h a s a h e lp to n e t h a t i s a l s o a c h o rd t o n e .

(j-l)SEVENTH CHORDS o f t h e MAJOR MODE.( D ia to n ic p e r f e c t f o u r t h s h i f t s can n o t be made from t h e u n d e r s c o r e d

s c a l e n u m b ers . ) ( i n t h i s c h a r t t h e c o n v e n t io n a l sym bols w i l l be u sed f o r t h e s e v e n th c h o r d s . )

D escend ing A rp e g g io s .S c a le Numbers,

A scend ing A rp e g g io s .. S c a le Numbers.

I ---------7 t h 1 3 5 7I I ---------7 t h 2 4 6 1I I I — " 3 5 7 2IVV— « 4 6 1 3V -----" 5 7 2 4VI— - " 6 1 3 E)V I I — " 7 2 4 6

’E xam ples.

I ---------7 t hI I ---7 t hI I I — n IV-----nV—■— itV I-----nV I I — n

7 5 3 1 1 6 4 22 7 5 33 1 6 44 2 7 55 3 1 66 4 2 7'

J 4fir 1 jfJ Jjf iniJ i j Vlf II j4 4 3 1(3 H-4 llk.3 I A MU jzi 1 t5 ( /

% n- h x 1 %a, 4 & # 2

"l 3 I 3 3 |

2 4 s, % \ \ ** H-

I 3 3 4 %% I 3 I la

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21

ili 3 ^ ^ X. 4 3 ZZ3 I q. 3 I i x , H-

3 XX*" XX I | X % I

H X \ \3

t l ' H

l 3 I X X 3 |

4 i m mq 334 X If If 3 11 ^ »4 3 l 3 3 4

3 »XZ3 I 3 X 4 XZ 3

Z I IX IL X Z I 3 3 4 X X I 3 I I I

i 4 x x 3 i

f J - 2 ) SEVENTH CHORDS o f t h e HARMONIC MINOR MODE.( D ia to n ic p e r f e c t f o u r t h s h i f t s c an n o t be made from th e u n d e rs c o re d

s c a l e n u m b e rs . )A scen d in g A rp e g g io s . D escen d in g A rp e g g io s .

S c a le Numbers. 1 3 5 72 4 6 13 5 7 24 6 1 35 7 2 46 1 3 57 2 4 6

I ------7 t hI I -----nI I I — "IV ---------"V ------vVI ---------»V I I — "

S c a le Number's. 8 5 3 I 1 6 4 2

If;!4 2 7 5 5 - 3 1 6 6 4 2 7

u j - - T i ii *7y L ii *■»;. -...i —4% 3 13 4 33 X 4 1 3 XX t 3 I i X 1f43 k 3 I 33x 3 X 4 XX l

m zz

1 /y i/C H iJ i/-

m V r f r r f c rlr #iii-_________ , ,4 x x I 3 4 1 3 \ 443 I Z / 'l 3 3 x H I

■m— f r m-55--- h>

6 t

ktf.li 3 I 3 4 3 X 4 X 3 XXI 3 l X, / 3 I 33 I

W i l b u r ^ l i H u r 1 W i i i ii T i l I 1 e ' - o r i I”/ / - , » / u

.. ..., .H ■ a, ( _____ ______4 3 3 4 x x 4 3 XZl*- I 3 X2.4^2- 4 x 1 1 3 I 3 /

X I lx if X. >t | i f i 1 ar j r t j ^ p p T t r t i S

i^ 1 1 X 4 ^ ^ 3 , 1 3 '

f cE*

„ 3 4 x f 3 X Z 3 I 3 x 1 I X 4 1 >3 11x 4 3 x 4 X X 3 % ( 33 f &3 1 3 3 4 X \ 3 I I Z

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(J-5)SEVENTH CHORDS OF THE MELODIC"MINOR MODE.( D i a t o n i c p e r f e c t f o u r t h s h i f t s can n o t be made from th e u n d e r s c o r e d

s c a l e n u m b e r s . )A sce n d in g A rp e g g io s o f th e D escen d in g A rp e g g io s o f th ea s c e n d in g s c a l e fo rm .

S c a le Num bers.d e s c e n d in g s c a l e fo rm .

S c a le Numbers.I —— —7 1 h 1 3 5 7 I —— —7 t h 7 5 5 1I I -----" 2 4 6 1 I I ——— " 1 6 4 2I I I — " 3 5 7 2 I I I — " 2 7 5 3IV-----" 4 6 1 3 IV-----n 5 1 6 4V-------n 5 7 2 4 V-------n 4 2 7 5V I-----n 6 1 3 5 V I-----n 5 5 1 6V I I — " E xam ples .

7 2 4 6 V I I — " 6 4 2 7

4 4-^3 4 3? %-443 1 3 4 3 1

If -z,Z I 3 4 ‘Z 443x, 4 %j

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S H ^ if3 1 3 3 f

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4 lf i

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(J-4)SEVENTH CHORDS OF

i 3 ^ ' 4 ^ i i j i ' 33 4 J. I <» W3Oz

3 2^3 3

^ ITHE MILDER MAJOR MODE.

i / X/2,

D e sc en d in g A rp e g g io s

( D ia to n ic p e r f e c t f o u r t h s h i f t s c an n o t be made frem th e u n d e r s c o r e d s c a l e n u m b e r s . )A scen d in g A rp e g g io s

S c a le N um bers.I ---------7 t h 1 3 5 7 I --------7 t h _I I --" 2 4 6 1 I I ------ " 1 6 4I I I — " 3 5 7 2 I I I — " 2 7 5IV -" 4 6 1 3 IV------" 3 1 6V ------- " 5 7 2 4 V ------" 4 2 7VI --" 6 1 3 5 V I------» 5 3 1V I I — " 7 2 4 6 V I I — " 6 4 2E x am p le s .

4. 1 >

S c a le Num bers. £ 5 3 1

23456 7

&-U —4 0 r%

3'hi=x^

1 3 3 ^ 3 'V l- —

$

a s r ~ r ^ u i its.1u. % if. 3 Z z 2 I 3 Z x 4 Z if3 11 -X if 3 % 44 \ 3 ^ z l l a . At

3 '3 ?I I |3 ) 9 I 4 3,X 3

X

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CYCLIC FINGERINGS FOR DIATONIC AUGMENTED TRIADS. ( A s c e n d in g . )

(k ) These c h o rd s f a l l on th e m e d ia n ts o f th e ha rm on ic and th e a s c e n d in g m e lo d ic m ino r s c a l e s . )

E x t e n t i o n s o f augm ented t r i a d s g iv e no p e r f e c t f o u r t h s .The f o l lo w in g exam ples u s e p e r f e c t f o u r t h d i a t o n i c h e lp t o n e s .Note d i f f e r e n c e s i n h e lp to n e s i n t h e two m odes.

Harmonic M ino r . (The d e s c r i p t i o n above e a c h s t a v e on p a g es 23S.-84 r e f e r t oi £FE : ao d e . ) H 3 ' ~ \ 4

1/A scending M elod ic Minor

^ - 4

1/ i2 /

3 ^ 3 ^

2 , l

a P t tH Z l , I 4 Ssn'O-ruu, %J Z I 3 3 \2, I

CYCLIC FINGERINGS FOR DIATONIC DIMINISHED TRIADf:. (A^r»Prri-?ng. )(L) These t r i a d s f a l l on th e s u p e r t o n i c s o f t h e h a rm o n ic ,d e s c e n d ]n m e lo d ic and th e m i ld e r m ajo r modes and on th e l e a d i n g to n e s o f t h e m a jo r ,a n d th e ha rm on ic and a s c e n d in g m inor m odes.

E x te n t i o n s o f t h e s e ' t r i a d s g iv e no p e r f e c t f o u r t h s .The f o l lo w in g exam ples u s e d i a t o n i c p e r f e c t f o u r t h s h i f t s .Note d i f f e r e n c e s i n h e lp to n e s in t h e s e v e r a l m odes.

M ild e r M a jo r .

E M i i t i g j ~ H H i t J t ag

ijt * 3M a jo r .

\ H- 3 1 % ^ 3 0/ 2. I 3 tV |

i $ t* f tj i k- 3 ‘ I H.if Z.Z I if3 3 % 3 z X/ I 3 z i 3 3

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CYCLIC FINGERINGS FOR DIATONIC AUGMENTED TRIADS. ^D escen d in g .^ (m; See (K ). '

Harmonic M inor.

P -f mmit m¥// ' I a l n. 3 I if & t 3A scend ing M elod ic M inor.

t l 2 / t /y x so n u Z /»

*$ i i / if. “^ x x r 1 3 1 1 T ' i

1CYCLIC FINGERINGS FOR DIATONIC DIMINISHED T R IA D S .(D e s c e n d in '. ) (N) See (L)

Harmonic M in o r .

cmJZs.

i I/ l Xx

6I i'h It 3 4

D e sc en d in g M elod ic M in o r .

HT| ! 1 3 3 $ 3

M ild e r M ajormii i 1

Xj5 3 4 x l3 l I x,

1/ 4,3 %r

jfj..ijljH i S^ i l - i1 5 * 3 4 .... i t 3 3 t nr * , 1 /YXjGryuts,

aM ajor

5 ft 3 311l I I Z ~ if. 3 ’If Z l 3 ZI 3 3 ¥

tz 5 1

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O-AUGMENTSD AND DIMINISHED FOURTHS AS HELP TONES.Help to n e s a r e a b o m in a t io n s .H o w e v e r , th e s e n e c e s s a r y e v i l s have a d v a n ta g e s .

Among o t h e r s , t h e p l a y e r u s i n g them knows p r e c i s e l y w here t h e l e f t hand i s ? ( C a r l F l e s h i n nf h e A r t o f V i o l i n P l a y in g ”d e v o te s some colum ns t o h e lp t o n e s , w h ic h he d i v i d e s i n t o g e n e r a l t y p e s . F o r th e p u rp o se o f t h i s p a p e r t h e one t y p e a l r e a d y e x p la in e d seems a d e q u a t e . )

The c o p io u s exam ples th u s f a r have depended upon d i a t o n i c p e r f e c t f o u r t h s h i f t s ; - a n d th e y i n d i c a t e t h e c o v e ra g e and a d v a n ta g e s o f t h a t p r a c t i c e . The exam ples a l s o show t h a t t h e p e r f e c t f o u r t h a ^ s t h e , o n ly s h i f t t o e f f e c t c y c l i c f i n g e r i n g s l e a v e s much t o be d e s i r e d .B e c a u s e o f m e l o d y , i n d i v i d u a l s t r i n g s ’ to n e c o l o r e t c . , i t would seem d e s i r a b l e t o be a b l e t o s h i f t from any to n e o f a c h o rd o r s c a l e t o make t h e c y c l e . Two l i m i t a t i o n s ham per, -we have b u t fo u r f i n g e r s , - and th e s h i f t sh o u ld e i t h e r be d i r e c t - o r i f h e lp t o n e s a r e u s e d , t h e h e lp t o n e s sh o u ld be d i a t o n i c , o t h e r w i s e th e t o n a l i t y i s d i s t u r b e d , t 'o t h i r ^ can be done a b o u t th e f i r s t l im i t a t i o n .H o w e v e r t h e second one may be s a t i s ­f i e d i f two more s h i f t i n g i n t e r v a l s a r e a d d e d ; - e g - t h e augm ented and d im in is h e d f o u r t h s .

Augmented and d im in i s h e d f o u r t h s w i l l need d r i l l i n g w i th c l o s e a t t e n t i o n t o be b ro u g h t u n d e r m e n ta l c o n t r o l . P e rh a p s t h e b e s t way to d r i l l and check them i s w i th t h e v o i c e ( n o t t h e i n s t r u m e n t ) .

When a l l s e v e r a l f o u r t h i n t e r v a l s a r e u n d e r m e n ta l c o n t r o l , t h e p o s s i b i l ­i t i e s f o r c y c l i c f i n g e r i n g s o f d i a t o n i c s c a l e s and c h o rd s has o n ly t h e l i m i ­t a t i o n o f f o u r f i n g e r s . (T h is l i m i t a t i o n f o r s c a l e s was m en tio n ed i n _I. A s i m i l a r aw kw ardness a p p e a r s f o r a r p e g g i o s . )

The f o l lo w in g exam ples i n d i c a t e how th e a p p l i c a t i o n o f augm ented and dim ­i n i s h e d f o u r t h s h i f t s a d d s t o t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f c y c l i c f i n g e r i n g s .

25

M ajor and Minor T r i a d s .

(A— augm ented s h i f t . ) (D— d im in i s h e d s h i f t . ) (P— p e r f e c t f o u r t h s h i f t . )

D ia to n ic S e v e n th C h o rd s .The u n d e r s c o r e d sym bols on p ages 2 0 ,2 1 and 22 a r e a l l u s a b l e a s to n e s from

w h ich s h i f t i n g may be done u s i n g d im in is h e d and augm ented f o u r t h s .P re d ic a m e n ts su c h a s t h e f o l lo w in g exam ple o f th e d o m in an t s e v e n th a r p e ^ ^ i o

o f D m inor o f f e r , a r e s o lv e d by u s in g augm ented and d im in i s h e d s h i f t s . (A rg u m e n t ; -F o r c y c l i c f i n g e r i n g s o f a s c e n d in g s e v e n th c h o rd a r p e ^ i o s th e f i r s t f i n g e r can n o t s e r v e a s a s h i f t i n g f i n g e r . In t h i s exam ple°one can n o t s h i f t from e i t h e r A o r E . — The s h i f t from C£ i s d im in i s h e d and th e s h i f t from G i s a u g m e n te d . )

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P - AUGMENTED AND DIMINISHED FOURTH DIRECT SHIFTS.Augmented and d im in i s h e d t r i a d s w i l l c y c l e i f u se i s made o f augm ented

and d im in i s h e d f o u r t h s h i f t s .

Q- CYCLIC ARPEGGIOS AND SCALES WITH EMBELLISHMENTS.(Q - I ) a A u x i l a r y n o t e s above t h e f o u r t h f i n g e r and below t h e f i r s t f inger- a r e awkward i n t h a t t h e y have d i f f e r e n t to n e q u a l i t y t h a n th e p r i n c i p a l t o n e s and t h e y r e q u i r e r a p i d c h an g e s o f t h e b o w 's p l a n e s .

b The d i r e c t s h i f t s w h ich w ere l i s t e d f o r c y c l i n g t r i a d s need n o t be a f f e c t e d .

IiMjf|!m! cif!lIBISc A u x i l a r y n o t e s o f f e r some a d d i t i o n a l n o t e s from w hich t o s h i f t .

/ t x * 0 4 I ( 3)

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d S c a l e c h a i n s o f a u x i l a r y n o t e s c o n t a i n t h e d i f f i c u l t y m en t io n ed i n a.,no m a t t e r where t h e s h i f t i s p l a c e d , i f c o n v e n t i o n a l f i n g e r i n g s a r e u s e d .

The f o l l o w i n g d e v i c e s o l v e s t h e p ro b le m .

27

3 4 3 3 * 3 33 i(Q-2) T r i l l s on c y c l i c a r p e g g i o s and s c a l e s have t h e same d i f f i c u l t i e s as a u x i l a r y n o t e s .

See ( 0 - I - a , b and c . )

(Q-3) A p p o g i a t u r a s .C h a in s o f —

I t i s sometimes c o n v e n i e n t t o s h i f t d i r e c t l y f rom a cho rd t o n e t o an a p p o g i a t u r a i n a r p e g g i o s w i t h a p p o g i a t u r a s .

± ■- < - 4— ' ' ! y — W------------------ ^ —it, S x I 4 3 Z , 3 Al * * I <5 / i * 4 I ^ Z S * i f

(Q-4) S u r r o u n d in g Tones g ro u p s a r e most e a s i l y done i f t h e f i r s t o r t h e second f i n g e r s t o p s t h e l o w e s t n o t e .

A s h i f t o f c f o u r t h i s c o n v e n i e n t t o c y c l e .

a P a s s in g n o t e s i n t r i a d a r p e g g i o s b e tw ee n t h e c h o rd r o o t and t h i r d and be tw een t h e c h o rd t h i r d and f i f t h do n o t need t o change t h e d i r e c t s h i f t f o r c y c l i n g .

P a s s i n g n o t e s may be s h i f t e d f rom i n o r d e r t o c y c l e a s i n s c a l e s . See ( I and O j . •

7 £ 2IS l l l s s s X i z £ ?%Sz 23S3

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P a s s i n g n o t e s be tw een t h e c h o rd f i f t h up t o t h e r o o t and from t h e r o o t down t o t h e c h o rd f i f t h make h e l p t o n e s n e c e s s a r y t o c y c l e .

j ' - j 4 r r i M - i

i1^3 1X3 4 33x 4 I X3 Zll 2 4 I Z / 33%. 3 4 I

XXI 2 34 3 / » 3 1 Z,S -z, U.H 3 4 l Z t 3 * 2-331%. 3 ( 3 ^42.3 2- 2. 3 3 1 2 .

X H 2 . 3 W X

$3■XF4 3 2.xFx « 3 %24 3 I 3 2A4 3 X 4 X 113 X. I ' 3 I

4 3X11X4 3 X I 3 X 113 X 4 X I 4 3 %X |4 3 X | 334 3 X / 4 XX3 X I 4 33 4 XX t 4 3 1IX

Jb P a s s i n g t o n e s i n s e v e n t h c h o rd a r p e g g i o s can be managed l i k e s c a l e t o n e s i n s e c t i o n ( l ) .

( 0 - 6 ) Added T ones .The ad ded t o n e above t h e r o o t f o r a s i n g l e v o i c e p a r t i n a r p e g g i o

a r r a n g e m e n t i s t h e same f o r t h e v i o l i n i s t a s a p a s s i n g n o t e be tw een t h e c h o r d ’ s r o o t and t h i r d .

I n a r p e g g i o s t h e v i o l i n i s t w i l l s t o p t h e added s i x t h to n e a s th o u g h i t were p a r t o f a s e v e n t h c h o r d .

R-CYCLIC FINGERINGS FOR SCALES IN DOUBLE STOPS.Most c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f d o u b l e s t o p s c a l e s f o r bowed s t r i n g i n s t r u ­

m en ts would e l i d e a l l e x c e p t t h o s e i n t h i r d s , s i x t h s , o c t a v e s and t e n t h s . However j i n t h i s d a y na n y t h i n g can h a p p e n ,rand p a s s a g e s may be e x p e c t e d i n s e c o n d s , s e v e n t h s and n i n e t h s j w h i c h , w i t h s c a l e s i n o c t a v e s , d o n o t l e n d t h e m s e l v e s t o c y c l i c f i n g e r i n g s s i m i l a r t o t h e t y p e s o f p ro b lem s a l r e a d y s o l v e d . Double s t o p s c a l e s i n f o u r t h s and i n f i f t h s w i l l c y c l e i f t h e d e v i s e o f e x t e n t i o n s , w h i c h f o l l o w s f o r t h i r d s and s i x t h s , i s u s e d .( R - l ) C y c l i c F i n g e r i n g s f o r S c a l e s i n T h i r d s and S i x t h s .

D i a t o n i c s c a l e s i n t h i r d s and i n s i x t h s w i l l c y c l e w i t h a s i n g l e s h i f t o f a f o u r t h i f e x t e n t i o n s a r e u s e d .

For t h e f o l l o w i n g example i n t h i r d s t h e hand r e m a in s i n t h e " s e c o n d p o s i t i o n nu n t i l t h e s h i f t a t S .F o r t h e f i r s t f i n g e r ’ s f i r s t n o t e t h a t f i n ­g e r i s e x t e n d e d b a c k w a r d s . ( T h e same manuever i s u s e d f o r t h e n o t e s g and b . ) The n o t e f i n t h e lo w e r v o i c e i s done w i t h t h e e x t e n d e d f o u r t h f i n g e r .

For t h e example i n s i x t h s b o t h t h e t h i r d and t h e f o u r t h f i n g e r s a r e

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SUMMIT

The fingerings in th is th esis have the following advantages:

1. Biey permit cy c lic maneuvers by the octave.

2. The tone material covered includes diatonic scales and triad and

seventh chord arpeggios and th e ir embellishments and double stop diatonic

sca les . (The table of contents gives a complete descriptive l i s t . )

3. The number of sh ifts necessary for extended scale and arpeggio

passages of three octaves or more i s reduced to one sh ift per octave.

it. The variety of sh ifts i s reduced to the intervals of fourths,

with one exception.

5c Many tables or charts which show at a glance humerous cyclic f in ­

gering p o s s ib il it ie s are given.

6. The topics and problems are presented in order of progressive

d iff ic u lty . The f i r s t sections have suggestions for practicing which have

been found helpfu l. To keep within a reasonable bulk the la ter sections

have fewer examples; a lso , l i s t s of compositions in which the schemes would

be practical are e lided .

The f ir s t four above numbered items resu lt in much relaxation from

strain of memory e ffo r t; (2) le s s necessary attention to d ig ita l and l e f t

arm motions because these are fewer in number and sim plified as to variety;

(3) le s s effort of aural attention in measurement of sh ifts ; a lso because

sh ifts are le s s often used and are confined to fourths; a l l of which makes

for confidence, composure and sa tisfa c tio n .

Reducing the number and variety of motions at the same time reduces

the number o f possible errors and resu lts in greater precision and speed

and fin er interpretations„ •

202676