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    Fifth Edition, last update January 18, 2006

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    Lessons In Electric Circuits, Volume I DC

    By Tony R. Kuphaldt

    Fifth Edition, last update January 18, 2006

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    i

    c2000-2006, Tony R. Kuphaldt

    This book is published under the terms and conditions of the Design Science License. Theseterms and conditions allow for free copying, distribution, and/or modification of this document bythe general public. The full Design Science License text is included in the last chapter.

    As an open and collaboratively developed text, this book is distributed in the hope that itwill be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MER-CHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the Design Science Licensefor more details.

    Available in its entirety as part of the Open Book Project collection at:

    www.ibiblio.org/obp/electricCircuits

    PRINTING HISTORY

    First Edition: Printed in June of 2000. Plain-ASCII illustrations for universal computerreadability.

    Second Edition: Printed in September of 2000. Illustrations reworked in standard graphic(eps and jpeg) format. Source files translated to Texinfo format for easy online and printedpublication.

    Third Edition: Equations and tables reworked as graphic images rather than plain-ASCII text.

    Fourth Edition: Printed in August 2001. Source files translated to SubML format. SubML is

    a simple markup language designed to easily convert to other markups like LA

    TEX, HTML, orDocBook using nothing but search-and-replace substitutions.

    Fifth Edition: Printed in August 2002. New sections added, and error corrections made, sincethe fourth edition.

    http://www.ibiblio.org/obp/electricCircuitshttp://www.ibiblio.org/obp/electricCircuits
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    Contents

    1 BASIC CONCEPTS OF ELECTRICITY 11.1 Static electricity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.2 Conductors, insulators, and electron flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

    1.3 Electric circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111.4 Voltage and current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131.5 Resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221.6 Voltage and current in a practical circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261.7 Conventional versus electron flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271.8 Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

    2 OHMs LAW 332.1 How voltage, current, and resistance relate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332.2 An analogy for Ohms Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382.3 Power in electric circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392.4 Calculating electric power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422.5 Resistors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 442.6 Nonlinear conduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 492.7 Circuit wiring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 542.8 Polarity of voltage drops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 582.9 Computer simulation of electric circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 592.10 Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70

    3 ELECTRICAL SAFETY 713.1 The importance of electrical safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 713.2 Physiological effects of electricity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 723.3 Shock current path . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 743.4 Ohms Law (again!) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 803.5 Safe practices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86

    3.6 Emergency response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 903.7 Common sources of hazard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 913.8 Safe circuit design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 943.9 Safe meter usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 993.10 Electric shock data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1103.11 Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110

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    4 SCIENTIFIC NOTATION AND METRIC PREFIXES 1134.1 Scientific notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113

    4.2 Arithmetic with scientific notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1154.3 Metric notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1174.4 Metric prefix conversions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1184.5 Hand calculator use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1194.6 Scientific notation in SPICE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1204.7 Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122

    5 SERIES AND PARALLEL CIRCUITS 1235.1 What are series and parallel circuits? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1235.2 Simple series circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1265.3 Simple parallel circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1325.4 Conductance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1375.5 Power calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1405.6 Correct use of Ohms Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1405.7 Component failure analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1425.8 Building simple resistor circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1485.9 Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163

    6 DIVIDER CIRCUITS AND KIRCHHOFFS LAWS 1656.1 Voltage divider circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1656.2 Kirchhoffs Voltage Law (KVL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1736.3 Current divider circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1846.4 Kirchhoffs Current Law (KCL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1876.5 Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189

    7 SERIES-PARALLEL COMBINATION CIRCUITS 1917.1 What is a series-parallel circuit? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1917.2 Analysis technique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1947.3 Re-drawing complex schematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2027.4 Component failure analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2107.5 Building series-parallel resistor circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2157.6 Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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