Decommissioning of Nuclear Power Plants – what ?· Magnus Oskarsson BU Nuclear Decommissioning ...…

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  • Decommissioning of Nuclear

    Power Plants

    what are the challenges?

    Magnus Oskarsson

    BU Nuclear Decommissioning

    2016-02-04

    SNEC

  • 2

    Outline

    Nuclear Operations within Vattenfall

    Nuclear Decommissioning in Sweden:

    Decommissioning planning

    Ringhals 1 & 2

    Strategy

    Challenges

    RinghalsForsmark

  • Nuclear Operations within Vattenfall

  • Nuclear operation within Vattenfall

    4

    BA Generation

    BU HydroBU Hydro Power Plants Germany

    BU Services Nordic

    BU Nuclear Generation

    BU SKBBU Nuclear

    DecommissioningBU Nuclear Fuel BU KSU

    BU Projects & Services

    Human Resources Fleet Development

    Business Control

    Forsmark

    Ringhals

    Decommissioning Sweden

    SVAFO

    Decommissioning Germany

    SKB

  • Vattenfall Nuclear Operations in Sweden

    Vattenfall is the majority owner of:

    Forsmark Kraftgrupp AB

    Ringhals AB

    SKB (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co)

    - the final repository for operational waste (SFR)

    - the interim storage for spent fuel (CLAB)

    SVAFO

    - nuclear license for the R2/R2-0 research reactor

    - applied to take over the nuclear license for

    gesta former NPP (PHWR)

    5

    BWR

    PWR

    Other Forsmark

    Ringhals

    Barsebck

    Oskarshamn

  • SVENSK KRNBRNSLEHANTERING

    Managing operational waste

    [SFR]

  • SVENSK KRNBRNSLEHANTERING

    Managing decommissioning waste

    Free release

    Landfill at NPP for

    VLLW (optional)

    NPP

    Conventional

    waste, ~ 95%

    On site backfilling,

    1m below ground

    Interim storage and

    Encapsulation plant

    for spent fuel (Clink) Final repository for

    spent fuel

    SFL, Final

    repository for

    long-lived waste

    SFR, Final repository short-lived waste

    Interim storage long-lived waste

    External

    treatment

    of LILW

    e.g. Studsvik

  • Nuclear Decommissioning in Sweden

  • 9

    20302020 2040 20452015 2025 2035

    Planned end of operation - start of decommissioning

    SVAFO

    R2/R2-0

    Ringhals 2

    Ringhals 1

    gesta

    Barsebck 1 & 2 Forsmark 1

    Forsmark 2

    Ringhals 3

    Ringhals 4

    Forsmark 3

    Oskarshamn 3

    Oskarshamn 1

    Oskarshamn 2

    Facilities at SVAFO

    Legacy waste handling

  • Nuclear decommissioning in Sweden

    According to the Act on Nuclear Activities, the licensee is responsible for the

    decommissioning of nuclear facilities, such as

    - Establish a decommissioning plan

    - Estimate the decommissioning cost (sv. Plankalkyl)

    based on the Site studies

    SKB have long experience of radioactive waste management, interim storage of

    spent fuel and of final disposal of operational waste in Sweden

    - An application for extension of the final repository for low and intermediate

    level waste (decommissioning waste) has been handed in

    10

  • Decommissioning planning within Vattenfall

    Separate decommissioning from operation

    - operation prioritised before decommissioning

    -> separation to keep focus on decommissioning.

    - Decommissioning should be viewed as an industrial process with adjusted

    authority demands.

    Decommissioning knowledge and skills concentrated in a

    decommissioning organisation.

    - The organisation will be an intelligent client.

    - The competence built within a decommissioning organisation will be of use for

    the whole Vattenfall group.

    Vattenfall is developing decommissioning knowledge and experiences,

    both through actual decommissioning projects (SVAFO) and through

    further studies and international benchmark.

    11

  • Decommissioning of

    Ringhals 1 & 2

    12

  • Ringhals Decommissioning of R1 and R2

    Planning

    Operation of R1 and R2

    R1 Shutdown

    20202019 2021 2022201820172016

    R2 shutdown

    PlanningAnalysis

    Decommissioning project

    13

    RAB holds the nuclear licensee

    Fuel removed

    Vattenfall decommissioning

    company holds the nuclear

    licensee

    Decommissioning R2

    Decommissioning R1

    Estimated time scale

    Separation of R1/R2 from R3/R4

  • Infrastructure - separation of R1/R2 from R3/R4

    14

    Today: Operation of R1/R2/R3/R4

    one integrated site sharing some functions/buildings

    (such as waste treatment, physical protection etc)

    Tomorrow, new demands on the site:

    Ongoing operation of R3/R4

    Decommissioning of R1/R2

    http://www.google.se/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&frm=1&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwj0_JGRhtHJAhWCCywKHVcBA3QQjRwIBw&url=http://www.airviro.smhi.se/ringhals/stationer.htm&psig=AFQjCNGH32oYXTDRfCNxllnVptcxaSt8wA&ust=1449828457006717http://www.google.se/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&frm=1&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwj0_JGRhtHJAhWCCywKHVcBA3QQjRwIBw&url=http://www.airviro.smhi.se/ringhals/stationer.htm&psig=AFQjCNGH32oYXTDRfCNxllnVptcxaSt8wA&ust=1449828457006717

  • Project organisation Decommissioning Ringhals 1 & 2

    15

    Project manager

    Engineering

    Project Scope

    Reference concept

    RadWaste

    Transport

    Logistics

    CAD

    Communication

    External

    Internal

    Legal

    Safety & Radiation protection

    Physical protection

    Radiological characterisation

    Reference groupAdministration

    Controller

    Planning

    Risk management

    Procurement

  • Planning phases in the project (example)

    16

    20202019 2021 2022201820172016 2023 2024 2025 2026 2027 2028 2029

    Phase I

    Phase II

    Phase

    III

    Planning

    Contract

    Closing

    Contract

    Closing

    Planning

    Planning

    Planning

    Closing

    Contract

    Contract

    ClosingClosing

  • Estimated cost for decommissioning of Ringhals 1 & 2

    - Ringhals site study 2013 estimated the cost for

    decommissioning of R1/R2 to 4-5 Billion SEK

    Site studies are done every third years, by the Nuclear licensees

    - an assessment of the decommissioning cost

    - Based on the estimated decommissioning cost (Plankalkyl) the

    authority (SSM) propose the fee to be paid to the Nuclear Waste Fund

    Current fee 4 re/kWh

    proposed to increase due to different reasons, such as earlier

    decommissioning start

    17

  • Strategy

    18

  • 19

    Strategy

    Safe

    Cost effective Decommissioning

    Optimised

    Use well known methods and techniques for the

    decommissioning and demolition

    ALARA BAT Cost

  • Strategic issues

    Final repository for decommissioning waste (expanded SFR 2028)

    Temporary storage and waste conditioning facilities;

    - final repository for long-lived waste planned to be in operation in the

    2040s

    Develop an industry guideline for free release of decommissioning waste

    Changing and developing regulatory framework

    Logistics (O1/O2, B1/2, R1/R2 and gesta 1 ship Sigrid and limited

    number of transport casks etc)

    Luck of competence and experienced staff (retirements)

    20

  • Challenges

    21

  • 22

    A typical Nuclear Power Plant:

    1500 rooms in 20-30 isolated structures/buildings

    Tall buildings with multiple basement floors, demands both vertical and

    horizontal material movement and people flow.

    Constructed of 200 000 m3 reinforced concrete.

    More than 100 km pipes and tubes, and >100 000 components

    Building area of about 500 000 to 1 000 000 m2

    The access to the site is restricted, the buildings are divided into subs

    without physical interconnection

    The Decommissioning & Demolition should take place while electricity

    production is ongoing on the site.

    How to get optimised logistics?

    Challenge: Optimised Logistics

  • Challange: Radwaste handling

    23

    Where and when should the radwaste be handled and

    temporarily stored/buffered?

    New waste management culture.

    Long- and short-lived waste could be stored temporarily on site

    Short-lived waste could be end-conditioned on site

    Where long-lived waste is end-conditioned determined later

    Argument for handling and temporarily stored/buffered at Ringhals:

    Non-conditioned waste is bulky to transport

    Space for buffering are available at Ringhals

    Experience and capacity to manage waste at Ringhals

  • Challenge: Large components

    24

    What strategic aspects is the choice between

    segmenting or directly deposited Reactor

    Pressure Vessels (RPV)?

    The ability to deposit these components are

    strategically important for an effective resolution:

    Reactor pressure vessel including internal

    parts (BWRs and PWRs), Steam generators

    (BWRs)

    Arguments for direct depositing of RPV:

    Higher flexibility

    Segmentation is time consuming

    Simplified management provides significantly

    lower dose

    Segmented or whole RPV deposited?

  • 25

    Concreate and steel that are free released can be recycled and used for

    other application.

    (i.e material with zero or very low radioactivity)

    Public a

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