Democracy, Nationalism and Sectionalism 2.1. Andrew Jackson became President in the 1820s, a time when democracy expanded, a trend called Jacksonian democracy. States chose presidential electors by popular vote instead of state legislatures. States abolished property requirements for voting. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Democracy, Nationalism and Sectionalism 2.1Andrew Jackson became President in the 1820s, a time when democracy expanded, a trend called Jacksonian democracy.States chose presidential electors by popular vote instead of state legislatures.States abolished property requirements for voting.Participation in elections grew, and Jackson presented himself as a common manWhat is it?
Jackson lost the presidential race in 1824 to John Quincy Adams despite winning the popular vote, because there was no electoral vote majority.In 1828, Jackson and the Democratic Party were very organized, and won the race.
Once Andrew Jackson became president, he replaced hundreds of government workers with people from the Democratic Party. This practicewas called the spoils system.
Southern voters expected Jackson to remove Indians living in the regionInstead, he urged Congress to pass the Indian Removal Act of 1830.Native Americans owned private property and went to court to defend their rights.
In 1832, the Supreme Court ruled that Georgias seizure of Indian lands was unconstitutional but Jackson refused to act on the rulingWhat N.A. didResults!!!In 1838, federal troops made 15,000 Cherokee journey from the Southeast to Oklahoma. At least 4,000 people died on this Trail of Tears.
1928 Presidential Election Results
1932 Presidential Election ResultsThe Nullification Crisis 2.1In 1828, Congress adopted an especially high tariff, or tax on imported goods.Jacksons VP John C. Calhoun opposed it.He favored nullification, the idea states could void federal laws they deemed unconstitutional on the ruling.Despite Calhouns and other southerners objections, Jackson signed a tariff into law.Now it gets ugly!Calhoun resigned the vice presidency and South Carolina threatened to secede from the Union.Jackson vowed The Union will be preserved.The crisis passed when Congress reduced the tariff, though the question of nullification and secession had only been postponed.
The Second Great Awakening began on the Kentucky frontier in the early 1800s and spread.Religion and Reform 2.2This new religious awareness led to the formation of new religious groups such as-The Unitarian Church-African American churches, such as the African Methodist Episcopal Church-The Church of Jesus Christ of the Latter-day Saints, organized by Joseph Smith in 1830. This led to minority religious groups facing discrimination.Roman Catholics were resented because they were poor and would work for low wages.What does this lead to???Americans began to debate the role of government in religion. Some felt that government should support religion.Others thought there should be separation of church and stateThis is something that is still debated today!The Second Great Awakening led many, such as Dorothea Dix, to work for reforms.
Dix taught Sunday school in a prison and learned the mentally ill were housed with criminals.She campaigned across the nation to change this.Her efforts led to the creation of the first modern mental hospitals.These movements also helped establish othersThe temperance movement campaigned to curb the use of alcohol.Groups distributed pamphlets and held meetings urging people to refrain from drinking alcohol.
The movement won some changes in the law. Some reformers worked to improve education and wanted to establish public schools.A leader of the public school movement, Horace Mann, worked to establish:-state oversight of local schools-standardized school calendars-teacher training
Slavery ended completely in the North during the 1800s. It remained an institution in the South.The Antislavery Movement 2.3Two million Africans and African Americans were held as slaves in the South.They worked at backbreaking tasks and could be beaten at any time. Families were separated.
The underground railroad developed to help slaves escape to freedom. It was made up of a loose network of conductors that hid runaway slaves. One of the best known conductors was Harriet Tubman.
A growing number of Americans wanted to end slavery. They were called abolitionists.Abolitionists became organized, holding meetings and giving lectures across the country.Many people were against abolishing slavery. Southerners argued it formed the foundation of their economy.
The slavery issue divided America.The abolition movement was small but vocal. It faced resistance in the North and the South.A Gag Rule passed by Congress prohibited debates on the subject.The issue still widened differences between the North and South.Women took active roles in several reform movements during the 1800s. Soon, some of these reformers decided to work to gain equality for women. This laid the groundwork for a long struggle, especially to gain the right to vote.The Womens Movement 2.4
Women lacked many basic rights in the early 1800s.NO Property OwnershipNO Voting RightsNO Election to Public OfficeFEW Educational Opportunities11
The reform movements brought about by the Second Great Awakening attracted many thoughtful women and gave women leadership roles and connections outside the home.HOW?Women can thank industrialization.Factories needed workers. Many women went to work in them and developed a degree of economic independence and new friendships.Two historical trends led to the beginning of real progress for womens rights.1Middle class women in urban areas hired poor women to do their housework, leaving them more time to think about social issues.2Women became involved in the abolitionist movement and began to compare their own situations to that of the slaves.113Stanton and Mott organized the nations first Womens Rights Convention, called the Seneca Falls Convention, in New York in 1848. The delegates adopted a Declaration of Sentiments, which called for greater rights and opportunities for women.We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men and women are created equalDeclaration of Sentiments, adopted Seneca FallsThe Seneca Falls Convention marked the beginning of the womens rights movement.Women's Rights MovementIt inspired a generation of leaders including Susan B. Anthony. Anthony concentrated her efforts for the next 50 years on gaining suffrage for womenthe right to vote.
The Causes and Effects of the Womens Rights MovementSuffragist movement demanded that women get the right to vote.States passed laws that protected womens property rights.Private schools for women opened, and some colleges accepted women students.CausesEffectsWomen could not vote, own property, or divorce abusive husbandsMany abolitionists believed that women also deserved equal rightsWomen were denied equal education opportunitiesWomens Rights Movement chart, AHON: p. 429.
In 1830, America included the east coast states, the Louisiana Purchase and Florida. Those who wanted to add New Mexico, Texas and California were known as expansionists.Manifest Destiny 2.5Manifest Destiny stood for the belief that the U.S. was destined to own most or all of North America.
Over a quarter million Americans settled on the West Coast between 1840 and 1860. They completed this dangerous five-month journey in wagon trains.
Native Americans were bound by the 1851 Treaty of Fort Laramie to avoid the wagon train trails. This rule interfered with their practice of pursuing buffalo.
Conflict in Texas 2.5Americans moved to Texas starting in the 1820s and agreed to be Mexican citizens for cheap land.Tensions arose and in 1836, Texas declared its independence. Mexican forces attacked a Texan garrison at the Alamo, and killed all of its defenders.The rallying cry remember the Alamo! helped Texan forces defeat Santa Annas army at the Battle of San Jacinto.Despite the victory, a border war went on between Mexico and Texas for many years.Sam Houston was elected President of the Republic of Texas and asked the U.S. to annex it. It entered the Union in 1845. President Polk stood behind the Texan claim to land up to the Rio Grande. This angered MexicoU.S. President Polk agreed!!!Polk sends troopsCongress declared war with Mexico in 1846. The U.S. won every major battle in the one-sided war.
In early 1848, gold was discovered in California. News spread and 80,000 Americans headed west as part of the California Gold Rush.California California applied for statehood in 1849. It wanted to enter the Union as a free state in which slavery was banned.Why is this a potential problem?The admission of California would tip the balance of 15 free and 15 slave states.In this way, the U.S. victory over Mexico led to growing conflict between North and South.Terms and People 2.1 Andrew Jackson a military hero who became President of the United States in 1828 as American democracy expanded Jacksonian democracy a trend in which politics became increasingly democratic, with more votersspoils system the use of political jobs to reward party loyaltyIndian Removal Act a law passed in 1830 that sought to exchange Indian lands in the South for land in present-day Oklahoma20Terms and People 2.1 (continued)Trail of Tears route taken by Cherokee forced from their land in the Southeast to Oklahoma, along which thousands died of disease and hungerJohn C. Calhoun Jacksons Vice President who championed nullificationnullification the concept that states could nullify, or void, and federal law they deemed unconstitutionalPanic of 1837 the nations worst economic depression to that time21Terms and People 2.3 Nat Turner leader of the best-known slave revolt against owners in the first half of the 1800sunderground railroad a secret organized network of people who hid runaway slaves as they headed NorthHarriet Tubman a courageous conductor of the underground railroad who led hundreds of slaves to freedomabolitionists people who spoke out to end slavery22Terms and People (continued)William Lloyd Garrison