Department AR&fn= آ  Ichthyology – BIO 454 By: Ahlam Harasani 3 Lab 1 Ichthyology Introduction

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  • المملكة العربية السعودية

    وزارة التعليم العالي

    جامعة الملك عبد العزيز

    كلية العلوم للبنات

    شعبة علم الحيوان –األحياء قسم

    Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Ministry of High Education

    King Abdu Aziz University

    Sciences Faculty For girls

    Biology section -Zoology


    Done By

    Ahlam Abbas Harasani

    Under supervision

    Dr. Fayza Abdulrhman Bawazeer



  • Ichthyology – BIO 454

    By: Ahlam Harasani 1

    Syllabus of Ichthyology Lab

    Week # Topics

    Week 1 Introduction - General Characters of fishes

    Week 2

    1- Super class : Agnatha (Petromyzon)

    Classification - General Characters.

    Week 3 Histological study of some cross sections of Petromyzon

    Week 4

    2- Super class : Gnathostomata

    Class : 1- Chrondrichthyes (Dogfish)

    Classification - General Characters - Dissections

    Week 5 Histological study of some cross sections of Dogfish

    Week 6

    2- Super class : Gnathostomata

    Class : 2- Osteichthyes (Lethrinus fish)

    Classification - General Characters - Dissections

    Week 7 Identify the Cross sections of gonads in fish at different stages of

    sexual maturation

    Week 8 Aquatic ecosystems

    Week 9 Common Fishes of the Red Sea and Arabian Gulf

    Week 10 osmoregulation in Fish

    Week 11 Revision

  • Ichthyology – BIO 454

    By: Ahlam Harasani 2



  • Ichthyology – BIO 454

    By: Ahlam Harasani 3

    Lab 1


    Introduction - Ichthyology is simply the science of studying fishes includes general

    characteristic of fish, their habitat requirements, classification, dissection, and

    external and internal anatomy .

    - All the species of the fish found in the world are classified into the following

    two groups. They are:

    1- Super class :Agnatha - jawless fish

    2- Super class :Gnathostomata – jaw fish

    A-Class : Chrondrichthyes - cartilaginous fish

    B-Class : Osteichthyes - bony fish

    A- Ray finned group

    B- Lobe finned group

  • Ichthyology – BIO 454

    By: Ahlam Harasani 4

    General characteristic of fish:

    1- Fish are aquatic vertebrates , cold-blooded, and have fins.

    2- Most fish have scales and breathe with gills.

    3- Most of the fishes are spindle shaped , some are laterally compressed, some are

    snake like, and some are globe like .

    4- The body of the fish is divided into head, trunk, and tail.

    A- Head (containing a brain and sensory organs).

    B- Trunk (with a muscular wall surrounding a cavity with the internal organs ) .

    C- Tail (is useful for changing the direction during swimming and it consists of fin

    known as caudal fin ).

    5- Fins are appendages used by the fish to maintain its position, move, steer and stop.

    They are either single fins alone centerline of the fish, such as the dorsal (back) fins,

    caudal (tail) fin and anal fin, or paired fins, which include the pectoral (chest) and

    pelvic (hip) fins.

    6- Caudal fin is of different types : (forked) or (round) or (Pointed).

    7- The gills are the breathing apparatus of fish and are highly vascularized giving

    them their bright red cover. Some of gills covered with an operculum (gill cover) that

    is a flexible bony plate protects the sensitive gills while others do not.

    Ext ernal

    Fish anat omy

    Caudal (Tail) Fin


  • Ichthyology – BIO 454

    By: Ahlam Harasani 5

    8- Fish see through their rounded eyes and can detect color.

    9- Paired nostrils, or nares, in fish are used to detect odors in water and can be quite


    10- The mouth shape is a good clue to what fish eat.

    11- The lateral line is a sensory organ consisting of fluid filled sacs with sensory cells.

    It primarily senses water currents and pressure, and movement in the water.

    12- Some of fish have spiral valve like cartilaginous fish while others do not.

    Internal Fish Anatomy

    BRAIN: The control center of the fish.

    It divided into 3 parts :

    1- Forebrain : thalamus +Olfactory lobes

    2- Midbrain: Optic lobes.

    3-Hindbrain: cerebellum + spinal cord

    SPINAL CORD: Connects the brain to the rest of the body and relays sensory

    information from the body to the brain, as well as instructions from the brain to the

    rest of the body.

    SPINE: The primary structural framework upon which the fish’s body is built;

    connects to the skull at the front of the fish and to the tail at the rear. The spine is

    made up of numerous vertebrae, which are hollow and house and protect the delicate

    spinal cord.

    SWIM (or AIR) BLADDER: A hollow, gas-filled balance organ that allows a fish to

    conserve energy by maintaining neutral buoyancy (suspending) in water.

    KIDNEY: Filters liquid waste materials from the blood;

  • Ichthyology – BIO 454

    By: Ahlam Harasani 6

    STOMACH AND INTESTINES: digest food and absorb nutrients. or do both.

    LIVER: This important organ has a number of functions. It assists in digestion by

    secreting enzymes that digest fats, and also serves as a storage area for fats and

    carbohydrates. The liver also is important in the destruction of old blood cells and in

    maintaining proper blood chemistry, as well as playing a role in nitrogen (waste)


    HEART: Circulates blood throughout the body. Oxygen and digested nutrients are

    delivered to the cells of various organs through the blood, and the blood transports

    waste products from the cells to the kidneys and liver for elimination.

    GONADS (REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS): In adults, the bright orange mass of

    eggs (yellow) or sperm (white) is unmistakable during the spawning season, but is

    still usually identifiable at other times of the year.

    MUSCLES: Provide movement and locomotion. This is the part of the fish that is

    usually eaten.

  • Ichthyology – BIO 454

    By: Ahlam Harasani 7



  • Ichthyology – BIO 454

    By: Ahlam Harasani 8

    Lab 2

    1- Super Class : Agnatha


    Kingdom: Animalia المملكة : الحيوانية

    Subkingdom: Metazoa تحت مملكة : البعديات

    Phylum: Chordata شعبة : الحبليات

    Subphylum: Vertebrata تحت شعبة الفقاريات

    Super class: Agnatha فوق طائفة : الالفكيات

    Class: Cephalospidomorphi

    Order : Cyclostomata رتبة : دائريات الفم

    Sub order: Petromyzontia رتبة : الجلكياتتحت

    Ex: Petromyzon (Lamprey) )مثال : البترومايزون )الجلكي

    Classification of Petromyzon

  • Ichthyology – BIO 454

    By: Ahlam Harasani 9

    General Characters of Agnatha :

    *No jaws.

    * No paired fins.

    * One nostril on the top of the head.

    General Characters of Petromyzon :

    * A lamprey (sometimes also called lamprey eels).

    * Primitive.

    * Lampreys live mostly in coastal and fresh water.

    * Cartilaginous skeleton .

    *Buccal funnel or sucking mouth with horny teeth.

    * A parasitic marine animal which bore into the flesh of other fish to suck their blood.

    * Lampreys have large eyes.

    *Adult lamprey can range anywhere from 13 to 100 cm(5 to 40 inches) long.

    * Lampreys have seven gills on each side separately and no operculum.

    *The Intestine undivided, there is spiral valve.

    *Single – sex.

    *There is larval stage called "Ammocoetes".

    Mout h in

    Pet romyzon

    External features of


  • Ichthyology – BIO 454

    By: Ahlam Harasani 10

    * Their larvae have a low tolerance for high water temperatures, which is probably

    why they are not found in the tropics.

    *The Intestine undiv