Design Principles for Open Digital Badges and Adult Learners (242321356)

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    19-Jul-2016

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Unlike other static credentials, open digital badges can contain detailed claims and evidence of learning. Join us to learn about the results of the Badges Design Principles Documentation Project and how to use the insights contained in the Badge Design Principles Database. You'll also learn about the goals and efforts of the EDUCAUSE Microcredentials Constituent Group and the Badge Alliance Higher Education Working Group, as well as a new effort to incorporate digital badges and effective practices across all higher education learning platforms. http://www.educause.edu/events/educause-annual-virtual-conference-2014/2014/connecting-learning-and-learners-open-badges

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  • Connecting Learning and Learners

    with Open Digital Badges Daniel T. Hickey, Associate Professor

    Learning Sciences Program

    Indiana University

  • Rebecca Itow

    Cathy Tran

    Katerina Schenke

    Nate Otto

    Christine Chow

    James Willis

  • 1. What are Open Digital

    Badges?

  • Web-enabled tokens of accomplishments

    Can be accumulated internally or externally

    Can be shared over email and social networks

    Contain specific claims about learning

    Contain evidence of learning

  • The Open Badge Infrastructure (OBI)

    Badge Name

    Badge Description

    Criteria

    Evidence

    Issuer

    Date Issued / Expires

  • 2. What was the Design Principles

    Documentation Project?

  • Accredited Context

    Accredited Badges

    None

    Other

    School or University

    After School

    Teacher PD

    Informal & Other

    Adult & Career

    Museum

    Extra-Curricular

    Common Core

    Local Standards

    Partners for 21CS

    None Identified

    K-12

    Middle School

    Secondary

    College Students

    Educators/ Other Vocational

    / Adult

    Accreditation Setting

    Standards

    Earners

  • Regardless of where you start, it is likely you will end up somewhere other than your intended destination. Thats okay. Systems are living things and your system needs to be flexible. You need to embrace a bit of chaos in its design.

    --Carla Casilli

    Most of the knowledge generated when designing complex systems evaporates as features evolve and team dissolve.

    --Phillipe Kruchten

  • Capturing Practical Wisdom

    Aristotles Phronesis Contextual and value-laden

    Bent Flyvbjerg (2001) Phronetic narratives

    Rich Halverson (2004) Artifact-based phronetic narratives

  • Categories of Badge Functions

    Recognizing Learning Skills, achievements, experiences, & practices

    Individual, peer, social

    Assessing Learning Summative, formative, transformative, & transcendent

    Motivating Learning Intrinsic, extrinsic, & participatory

    Studying Learning

    Research of, for, & with digital badges

  • Evolution of Badge Design Practices

    Intended Practices - Ideas outlined in original proposals

    Enacted Practices - Intentions unfolding in world

    Formal Practices - Practices after funding ends

  • Emergence of Badge Design Principles

    Draft Initial Principles - Similar practices across different projects

    - Aiming for 4-6 principles for each function

    Formalize General Principles -Exemplified by specific projects

    -Broke many down into more specific principles

    -Highlights intersection of principle with context

    Bookmark Research - Find relevant research for each principle

    - Encourages spread of systematic inquiry

  • 3. What are the big ideas from the DPD project?

    Important things about badges that

    some projects and many observers

    did not fully appreciate

  • DIGITAL BADGES ARE DIFFERENT Claims & evidence hard to define Many projects

    struggled to specify claims

    Many projects struggled to specify evidence

    {

    "uid": "f2c20",

    "recipient": {

    "type": "email",

    "hashed": true,

    "salt": "deadsea",

    "identity":

    "sha256$c7ef86405ba71b85acd8e2e95166c4b111448089f2e1599f42fe1bba

    46e865c5"

    },

    "image": "https://example.org/beths-robot-badge.png",

    "evidence": "https://example.org/beths-robot-work.html",

    "issuedOn": 1359217910,

    "badge": "https://example.org/robotics-badge.json",

    "verify": {

    "type": "hosted",

    "url": "https://example.org/beths-robotics-badge.json"

    }

    }

  • OPEN BADGES ARE REALLY DIFFERENT Info circulates in social networks Projects recognized

    that stakes are increased

    Validty gets crowdsourced

    COPPA, FERPA, and other concerns worried many projects

  • ITS NOT (JUST) ABOUT BADGES Badges are part of an ecosystem

    More successful projects integrated badge functions into their learning ecosystem

    Less successful projects tried to build ecosystem around badges

  • 4. What are the general findings

    from the DPD project?

    Things we learned looking

    across projects over time

  • Roughly 10 created proposed badge ecosystem

    Roughly 10 created badges but not ecosystem

    Roughly 10 did not create badges

    BADGES CAN REALLY WORK But not everywhere

  • What the Projects Ultimately Created

    Proposed ecosystem with scaled back practices

    Proposed ecosystem with fewer practices

    Different badges and ecosystem

    Proposed badges and different ecosystem

    Still building proposed badges

    Proposed badges

  • STARTING POINTS MATTERS

    Badge Systems = Tech + Content + Badges Sheryl Grants Five Buckets

    o RESPONSIVE = Start with content

    o LAYERED = Start with tech and content

    o BADGES-FIRST = Start with badges

    o NEW BUILD = Tech, content, & badges together

    o INTEGRATED = Start with tech

    DPD Confirmed Badges-First is problematic

  • BUILD BUCKET PROJECT OUTCOME

    Responsive Proposed ecosystem with scaled back practices

    Responsive Proposed ecosystem with fewer practices

    Layered Different badges and ecosystem

    Layered Proposed badges and different ecosystem

    New Build Still building proposed badges

    Responsive Proposed badges

  • 5. What were the most challenging

    principles to enact?

    Popular intended practices that

    were difficult to formalize

  • Principle Practice Failures/ Attempts

    Seek external backing Externally endorsed 6/10

    Externally valued 6/8

    Use badges to externally communicate learning

    Use badges to externally communicate learning

    4/12

    Have experts issue badges Have badges accredited by accredited entity and community

    3/10

    Align badges to standards Align to internal standards 2/6

    Align to national or international standards

    2/12

    Align to community standards

    1/4

    Most Challenging RECOGNITION Principles & Practices

  • Principle Practice Failures/ Attempts

    Enhance validity with expert judgment

    Use human experts and computers

    4/10

    Align assessments to standards and create objectives

    Common Core State Standards

    3/8

    National/state standards 1/8

    Internal standards 1/9

    Use e-portfolios Foster discussion around artifacts

    2/3

    Open to the public 1/2

    Local to community 1/4

    Use formative functions of assessment

    Peer feedback 2/4

    Most Challenging ASSESSMENT Principles & Practices

  • Principle Practice Failures/ Attempts

    Provide privileges Provide internships 4/6

    Provide prizes 3/6

    Provide peer mentorship 3/9

    Provide new activities 3/11

    Use different types of assessment

    Peer assessment 4/7

    Self assessment 1/3

    Expert assessment 1/3

    Build outside value for badges

    Evidence for outside opportunities

    3/9

    Most Challenging MOTIVATION Principles & Practices

  • 6. What did the DPD project find for

    specific projects & practices

    The unfolding of practices in the

    projects with adult learners

  • Category Principle Practice

    Recognizing Recognize diverse learning Recognize diverse learning

    Use badges to externally communicate learning

    Use badges to externally communicate learning

    Promote discovery Discover learning opportunities

    Assessing Align activities to standards` Internal standards

    Use formative functions of assessment

    Peer assessment

    Use mastery learning Judged by human experts and computer

    Use rubrics Rubrics developed for specific artifacts

    Promote hard and soft skills Combine collaborative learning and discreet skills

    Motivating Provide privileges Peer mentorship

    Display badges to the public Learners can choose to share badges with public

    Build outside value for badges Real-life application of knowledge

    Practices Formalized or Proposed & Not Enacted

  • Category Principles General Practice

    Recognizing Have experts issue badges Credentialed via accredited entity and community

    Have experts issue badges Credentialed via community

    Seek external backing of credential

    Externally endorsed

    Assessing Use rubrics Rubrics developed for specific artifacts

    Motivating Provide privileges Provide prizes

    Use different types of assessments

    Peer Assessment

    Stimulate competition Use point system

    Study Study impact of badges Research of badges

    Proposed & Not Enacted or Unproposed & Introduced

  • Category Principles General Practice Specific Practice

    Recognizing Learning

    Use badges as a means of external communication of learning

    Endorsement and translation of skills

    Promote discovery Discover learners Promote earners skills to employers

    Assessing Learning

    Use leveled badge systems Competency levels Translation of skills

    Motivating Learning

    Build outside value for badges Evidence of outside opportunities

    Potential to gain employment

    Recognize identities Target a specific group Veterans

    Engage with community Involvement in digital community

    Network with community members

    Studying Learning

    Study Badge impact Research of badges Data collection and analysis

    Practices Formalized, Proposed & Not Enacted or Unproposed & Introduced

  • Category Principles General Practice

    Recognizing Use badges to externally communicate learning

    Use badges to externally communicate learning

    Assessing Use leveled badge systems Competency levels

    Enhance validity with expert judgment

    Use human experts

    Use formative functions of assessment

    Provide peer and expert feedback

    Involve students at a granular level Learning pathways and badge design

    Motivating Set goals User created badges

    Use different types of assessments Peer assessment

    Practices Proposed & Not Enacted

  • 5. Where can we get more info?

  • 6. How can we get involved?

  • 4. Where can we get more info

    and get involved?

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