2013 Thomas J. Sherlock CU School of Medicine, 1883-1918 Page 1
The University of Colorado School of Medicine, 1883-1918
Presentat ion by Tom Sher lock1
Univers ity of Colorado Arts in Medicine Lecture October 21, 2013
During its first 35 years, the University of Colorado School of Medicine, like other medical schools, gradually discovered appropriate ways to develop a faculty and structure a curriculum that would best prepare its students to practice scientific medicine. At CU, the process was greatly aided by some extraordinary physicians and surgeons who moved to Colorado because they or a loved one had been diagnosed with tuberculosis. This handout includes the following:
1. Colorados Five Medical Schools, 1881-1910 pg. 2
2. Highlights of the Development of Scientific Medicine, 1850-1918 pp. 3-7
3. Deans of the University of Colorado Department of Medicine and Surgery and School of
Medicine, 1883-1945 pg. 8
4. CU School of Medicine Faculty during selected years:
o 1883-1884 pg. 9
o 1890-1891 includes information on admission and curriculum, pp. 10-14
o 1895-1896 pp. 15-17
o 1908-1909 pp. 18-20
o 1917-1918 pp. 21-24
5. Base Hospital No. 29, London, 1918 pp. 25-26
1 This presentation is dedicated to the memory of Dr. Matthew Henry Gardiner, who received his MD in 1895 from
the University of Colorado. Dr. Gardiner died of typhoid fever on March 18, 1896, while serving as head resident physician at Denvers Arapahoe County Hospital. Dr. Gardiner died despite the efforts of two of his CU professors Drs. Herbert W. McLauthlin and Herbert B. Whitney, the latter a well-respected diagnostician. Dr. McLauthlins report on what happened to Dr. Matthew Gardiner is found in the Transactions of the Colorado State Medical Society for 1896, pp. 156-157. firstname.lastname@example.org www.coloradohealthcarehistory.com 303-680-4848
CU School of Medicine, 1883-1918 Page 2
Colorados Five Medical Schools 1881-1910 Three medical schools opened during the 1880s, and then two more opened in 1894 and 1895.
1. 1881 University of Denver and Colorado Seminary Medical Department
came to be called the Denver College of Medicine, officially in 1899 became the Denver and Gross College of Medicine following a merger (1902) merged with the University of Colorado School of Medicine (1910)
2. 1883 University of Colorado Department of Medicine and Surgery (Boulder)
became the University of Colorado School of Medicine (1891) moved from Boulder to Denver (1925) moved from Denver to the Anschutz Medical Campus in Aurora (2004)
3. 1887 Gross Medical College (Denver)
merged with the DUs Denver College of Medicine to become Denver and Gross College of Medicine (1902)
merged with the University of Colorado School of Medicine (1910)
4. 1894 Denver Homeopathic College
became the Denver College of Physicians and Surgeons (1908) and closed (1909) 5. 1895 Western Institute of Osteopathy (Denver)
became the Bolles Institute of Osteopathy (1899) became the Colorado College of Osteopathy (1901) was absorbed by the American School of Osteopathy in Kirksville, Missouri (c.1909)
During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, some of Colorados more educated and socially prominent citizens preferred to consult homeopathic physicians, who by the turn of the century were often treated as colleagues by regular physicians. By about 1910, many homeopathic physicians had accepted regular medicine and abandoned homeopathy. Flexners Medical Education in the United States and Canada: A Report to the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching which was probably the single most important factor in professionalizing medical education in the United States changed almost everything for medical schools. Of the 155 medical schools that Flexner and his assistant visited, he recommended that 27 remain open.
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Highlights of the Development of Scientific Medicine , 1850-1918 1850s: Jacalyn Duffin (History of Medicine, 2010, pg. 126), wrote that the top drugs and treatments used or sold in various medical practices during the 1850s were these:
Quinine the common antimalarial drug until the 1940s
Opium used as a sedative and tranquilizer
Venesection surgical cutting of a vein
Tartar emetic used as an emetic and expectorant to produce sweating and to treat certain diseases, despite its toxic side effects
Calomel mercury chloride taken internally, used as a laxative and disinfectant; also used to treat syphilis
Ipecac used as a syrup to induce vomiting
Cupping suction applied to the skin; believed to mobilize blood and promote healing
Iron used to treat anemia
Jalap a plant; WebMD website: Despite serious safety concerns, this medicine is used to empty and cleanse the bowels (as a cathartic or purgative), and to increase urine flow to relieve water retention (as a diuretic).
1851: Hermann von Helmholtz (1821-1894) invented the ophthalmoscope. 1853: Dr. Alexander Wood invented the hypodermic needle, and French surgeon Dr. Charles Gabriel Pravaz invented his Pravaz syringe in 1853 as well. 1853-1856: What Florence Nightingale did during the Crimean Warthe practices and procedures she and her team developed became the foundation of modern nursing and hospital design. 1858: University of Berlin pathologist Rudolf Virchow, MD, 37, demonstrated that the cell is the center of disease processes, displacing the humoral theory of disease that had long been accepted. 1862: Louis Pasteur disproved the theory of the spontaneous generation of organisms by proving that airborne bacteria play a role in fermentation establishing the discipline of bacteriology and made a major contribution to the eventual acceptance of the germ theory of disease, which he proposed in 1880. 1863: Dr. Hermann Brehmer of Grbersdorf, Silesia (Germany) opened his Brehmerschen Heilanstalt fr Lungenkranke Brehmers Sanatorium for Lung Diseases where he made sure that his patients got plenty of high-altitude fresh air and good nutrition surrounded by a pine forest. Inhaling the turpentine fragrance from pine trees had long been considered to have healing qualities. Because his success rate was better than had been seen, Brehmers fresh-air-and-abundant-food approach to the treatment of tuberculosis was adopted in Colorado (beginning about 1890) and other high-altitude regions, where a patients lungs got more exercise because of the airs reduced oxygen content.
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1863: The War Department published this general order: Medical Directors of Armies in the field will forward, direct to the Surgeon General, at Washington, duplicates of their reports to their several Commanding Generals, of the killed and wounded, after every engagement. Based on these reports, US Army Surgeon General Joseph K. Barnes published The Medical and Surgical History of the War of the Rebellion. (1861-65) in 6 volumes (1870). Along with Joseph Listers 1867 introduction of the procedures that established modern antiseptic surgery, the book was a major factor in the development of modern medicine and surgery. 1865: Jean-Antoine Villemin, MD, 38, of the Hpital dinstruction des armes du Val-de-Grce in Paris demonstrated that tuberculosis is an infectious disease. 1867: Joseph Lister of the University of Glasgow introduced sterilization and the procedures that established modern antiseptic surgery and significantly reduced the secondary infections that were so deadly during the US Civil War, for example. 1876: Prussian bacteriologist Robert Koch isolated the anthrax bacterium (Bacillus anthracis). 1876: When Dr. Joseph Lister died in 1912, Denver ophthalmologist Dr. Edward Jackson who had received his MD in 1878 from the University of Pennsylvania wrote about the radical change in surgical procedures that had taken place in 1876, during his own time in medical school.
When the students of medicine in the University of Pennsylvania came back to the surgical clinics at the University Hospital, in the fall of 1876, a new thing greeted them. The smell of carbolic acid was in the air, and one or more steam atomizers were buzzing in the operative arena, with an attendant or interne watching, or occasionally adjusting it to make it do its duty. When the operation was begun the cloud of carbolized watery vapor was turned upon the field of operation, on the hands of the surgeon, and his assistants, and incidentally on their faces and eyeglasses, which from time to time needed to be wiped clear of the mist. Professor D. Hayes Agnews old black frock coat, bearing many stains from former service, was gone. Instead, we saw a long white operating gown that swathed him from neck to heels and wrists: and which he found sometimes awkward, so that he had to appeal for assistance to readjust it. (Colorado Medicine Apr 1912, pg. 110)
Just the previous month, Professor Hayes Agnew had attended the International Medical Congress that had been held in Philadelphia during the Centennial Exposition. Professor Joseph Lister had led the section on surgery. 1879: In Washington, the Library of the Surgeon Generals Office, directed by John Shaw Billings, began publishing the Index Medicus, which attempted to be a comprehensive catalog of medical periodical literature. In 1880, Billings began publishing the critically important Index-Catalogue of the Library of the Surgeon-Generals Office.
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1880: Karl Joseph Eberth (18