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Developmental Psychology Developmental Psychology Graham Scott

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Developmental Psychology Developmental Psychology Graham Scott Slide 2 How do children work? Early Theories 18 th Century Empiricists: Adults in training. Nativists: Adults in miniature. Slide 3 Jean Piaget (1896-1980) First to suggest that children see the world differently to adults. First to develop methods to investigate this. First to offer a systematic theoretical account of the process of mental growth. Slide 4 Piagets Theory of Cognitive Development Stage 1: sensory-motor intelligence Birth 2 years Slide 5 Piagets Theory of Cognitive Development Stage 1: sensory-motor intelligence Birth 2 years Stage 2: preoperational period 2 7 years Slide 6 Piagets Theory of Cognitive Development Stage 1: sensory-motor intelligence Birth 2 years Stage 2: preoperational period 2 7 years Stage 3: concrete operations 7 11 years Stage 4: formal operations 11 years + Slide 7 Piagets Theory of Cognitive Development Stage 1: sensory-motor intelligence Birth 2 years Stage 2: preoperational period 2 7 years Stage 3: concrete operations 7 11 years Stage 4: formal operations 11 years + Slide 8 Object Permanence For infants, Out of sight, out of existence. Slide 9 Object Permanence Slide 10 For infants, Out of sight, out of existence. 8 months infants start to reach for a hidden toy. Slide 11 Object Permanence For infants, Out of sight, out of existence. 8 months infants start to reach for a hidden toy. A-not-B effect. Slide 12 The A-not-B effect Slide 13 Object Permanence For infants, Out of sight, out of existence. 8 months infants start to reach for a hidden toy. A-not-B effect The child still doesnt understand that the objects existence is entirely independent of his own actions. Slide 14 Object Permanence For infants, Out of sight, out of existence. 8 months infants start to reach for a hidden toy. A-not-B effect The child still doesnt understand that the objects existence is entirely independent of his own actions. Understanding that objects exist on their own is a major accomplishment of the sensory-motor period. Slide 15 Sensory-motor Schemas Infants start life with only a few reactions, and think of the world in terms of these reactions. Slide 16 Sensory-motor Schemas Infants start life with only a few reactions, and think of the world in terms of these reactions. Piaget claimed 2 processes were responsible for all cognitive development: Assimilation: children use the mental schemas they have to interpret the environment. Accommodation: schemas change as the child gains experience of the world. Slide 17 Beginnings of Representational Thought 18-24 months: children begin to conceive of objects which arent immediately present. Slide 18 Beginnings of Representational Thought 18-24 months: children begin to conceive of objects which arent immediately present. Goes hand-in-hand with object permanence. Slide 19 Beginnings of Representational Thought 18-24 months: children begin to conceive of objects which arent immediately present. Goes hand-in-hand with object permanence. Where is the evidence? Slide 20 Beginnings of Representational Thought 18-24 months: children begin to conceive of objects which arent immediately present. Goes hand-in-hand with object permanence. Where is the evidence? At 18 months: Annoyance if toy is not in expected hiding place. Slide 21 Beginnings of Representational Thought 18-24 months: children begin to conceive of objects which arent immediately present. Goes hand-in-hand with object permanence. Where is the evidence? At 18 months: Annoyance if toy is not in expected hiding place. Deferred imitation. Slide 22 Piagets Theory of Cognitive Development Stage 1: sensory-motor intelligence Birth 2 years Stage 2: preoperational period 2 7 years Stage 3: concrete operations 7 11 years Stage 4: formal operations 11 years + Slide 23 Failure of Conservation Conservation of Quantity. Slide 24 Failure of Conservation Slide 25 Slide 26 Slide 27 Conservation of Quantity. Conservation of number. Slide 28 Failure of Conservation Slide 29 Conservation of Quantity. Conservation of number. Why the errors? Inability to interrelate the different dimensions of a situation. Slide 30 Failure of Conservation Conservation of Quantity. Conservation of number. Why the errors? Inability to interrelate the different dimensions of a situation. Egocentrism. Slide 31 Egocentrism Slide 32 Piagets Theory of Cognitive Development Stage 1: sensory-motor intelligence Birth 2 years Stage 2: preoperational period 2 7 years Stage 3: concrete operations 7 11 years Stage 4: formal operations 11 years + Slide 33 Concrete and Formal Operations Children can now transform their own mental representations to solve all the problems we have discussed. Slide 34 Concrete and Formal Operations Children can now transform their own mental representations to solve all the problems we have discussed. But they still lack in abstract thinking. Slide 35 Concrete and Formal Operations Children can now transform their own mental representations to solve all the problems we have discussed. But they still lack in abstract thinking. E.g., they know: 4 + 1 = odd, 6 + 1 = odd, and 8 + 1 = odd, but fail to see the pattern. Slide 36 Concrete and Formal Operations Children can now transform their own mental representations to solve all the problems we have discussed. But they still lack in abstract thinking. E.g., they know: 4 + 1 = odd, 6 + 1 = odd, and 8 + 1 = odd, but fail to see the pattern. The pendulum problem. Slide 37 What Piaget Accomplished Influenced the way people think about intellectual growth. Discovered phenomena. Provided insight. But his findings have been challenged... Slide 38 Space and Objects in Infancy The visual cliff Slide 39 The Visual Cliff Slide 40 Space and Objects in Infancy The visual cliff The effect of occlusion Slide 41 The Effect of Occlusion Slide 42 Space and Objects in Infancy The visual cliff The effect of occlusion Habituation procedure Slide 43 The Effect of Occlusion Slide 44 Space and Objects in Infancy The visual cliff The effect of occlusion Habituation procedure Knowing about objects Slide 45 Knowing About Objects Slide 46 Space and Objects in Infancy The visual cliff The effect of occlusion Habituation procedure Knowing about objects Object permanence and the search process Slide 47 Space and Objects in Infancy Slide 48 Number in Infancy Piaget argued that children had no concept of number, but... Slide 49 Number in Infancy Piaget argued that children had no concept of number, but... Habituation showed they grasped the concept of threeness. Slide 50 Number in Infancy Slide 51 Slide 52 Piaget argued that children had no concept of number, but... Habituation showed they grasped the concept of threeness. They seem to understand numerical equivalency. Slide 53 Number in Infancy Piaget argued that children had no concept of number, but... Habituation showed they grasped the concept of threeness. They seem to understand numerical equivalency. They can even add and subtract! Slide 54 The Existence of Other Minds Innate predisposition to faces. Slide 55 The Existence of Other Minds Slide 56 Innate predisposition to faces. Follow their mothers gaze. Slide 57 The Existence of Other Minds Innate predisposition to faces. Follow their mothers gaze. Try to comfort others. Slide 58 End of Part 1 Slide 59 Language Development and Acquisition Theoretical points of view Nature - language is innate; biological predisposition Nurture - lang. learned via environmental stimulation Slide 60 Language Development and Acquisition Points of debate: imitation & correction? whole-object constraint over-regularisation (goed, tooths) motherese pidgin creole Conclusion: infants are immediately sensitive to language, but need to interact to learn Slide 61 Stages of Language Production (0-12m) Age (mo)/StageBehaviour 0-3 vegetative soundsburp, cough, suck, swallow, cry. Slide 62 Stages of Language Production (0-12m) Age (mo)/StageBehaviour 0-3 vegetative soundsburp, cough, suck, swallow, cry. 3-5 cooing and laughing sounds with intonation. Slide 63 Stages of Language Production (0-12m) Age (mo)/StageBehaviour 0-3 vegetative soundsburp, cough, suck, swallow, cry. 3-5 cooing and laughing sounds with intonation. 5-12 babblingconsonant-vowel sounds. Slide 64 Stages of Language Production (0-12m) Age (mo)/StageBehaviour 0-3 vegetative soundsburp, cough, suck, swallow, cry. 3-5 cooing and laughing sounds with intonation. 5-12 babblingconsonant-vowel sounds. 6-9 reduplicatedba-ba-ba-ba. 9-12 variegatedbi-du-ba. Slide 65 Stages of Language Perception (0-12m) AgeDiscrimination 45 minsround lips vs. tongue protrusion imitation. Slide 66 Stages of Language Perception (0-12m) Slide 67 AgeDiscrimination 45 minsround lips vs. tongue protrusion imitation. 1 weekmothers voice vs. others voice. own language vs. foreign language. sucking Slide 68 Stages of Language Perception (0-12m) AgeDiscrimination 45 minsround lips vs. tongue protrusion imitation. 1 weekmothers voice vs. others voice. own language vs. foreign language. sucking 2-4 moall possible phoneme distinctions. 6-8 mocategorise phonemes across different voices. lose non-native distinctions. Slide 69 Stages of Language Production (1-5yrs) Age (yr)/StageBehaviour 1holophrasemore, dada, gone, (1 word stage)bye-bye. Slide 70 Stages of Language Production (1-5yrs) Age (yr)/StageBehaviour 1holophrasemore, dada, gone, (1 word stage)bye-bye. 1.5telegraphicAllgone milk, She cold, (2 word stage)Shut door. Slide 71 Stages of Language Production (1-5yrs) Age (yr)/StageBehaviour 1holophrasemore, dada, gone, (1 word stage)bye-bye. 1.5telegraphicAllgone milk, She cold, (2 word stage)Shut door. 2-4Short Sentence StageShort sentences, negation and sentence formation Slide 72 Stages of Language Production (1-5yrs) Dada play? Play Dada? Can Dada play? No/Not Dada play Dada no/not play Dada dont play Slide 73 Stages of Language Production (1-5yrs) Age (yr)/StageBehaviour 1holophrasemore, dada, gone, (1 word stage)bye-bye. 1.5telegraphicAllgone milk, She cold, (2 word stage)Shut door. 2-4Short Sentence StageShort sentences, negation and sentence formation 4-5more complex forms, over-regularisations went goed went Slide 74 Critical Periods The notion of a critical period Slide 75 Critical Periods Nurture help needed, but must come within the critical period. Learning is innately guided, but must come from responses to particular stimuli. This can be manipulated: Attachment in ducks. Regional Dialects in bird song. Slide 76 Critical Periods Slide 77 A Critical Period for Language Learning? The case of Isabelle Hidden in attic by deranged mother. No exposure to language. Found at age 6. Normal language by age 7. Slide 78 A Critical Period for Language Learning? The case of Genie Isolated from age 20 months, no exposure to language. Found age 13. Language stayed in pidgin form. Slide 79 A Critical Period for Language Learning? The case of Chelsea Born deaf and mistakenly diagnosed as retarded. Never exposed to spoken or sign language. Correctly diagnosed at age 31, hearing restored. Intensive language training. No progress beyond rudimentary 2 word sentences. Slide 80 Is there a Critical Period for Language Acquisition? These cases suggest a critical period. Exposure before ~7 results in acquisition. Exposure after ~13 does not. Problems with evidence? Slide 81 The End