1. DIFFERENT SCHOOLSOFPHILOSOPHYReported by:LILIBETH A. ROLDANPh.D. studentDr. Teresita BulandanProfessorFundamental ofPhilosophy
2. 1. the philosophy of idealism--one of the oldest systems of human thought.(According to this concept, knowledge is independentof sense experience.)Some idealist assert that the true ideas exist innately inthe soul of manman as part of the universe is a purposivebeing.
3. Some of the important concepts and generalizations inthe philosophy of idealism are:a. metaphysicsall of reality is reducible to onefundamental substance (spirit).The nature of the spirit in negative terms is nonmateriality and it is describe as idea in positive terms.b. epistemologythere are two divisions of idealism:(1)Objective idealism affirms that man is able to knowonly what he perceives.His only knowledge is of his mental states. It is saidthat the stimuli which is perceived by the soul comes fromthe infinite spirit-(GOD)(2) Subjective idealism idealists affirm the existence ofeternal values.These absolute value exist in GOD.
4. (Idealism applies to any theory which seesthe universe as being made of mind or reason.Some believers of idealism recognize both mindand matter in the universe. Others insist thatconsciousness or reason form the basis of reality.)
5. Types of idealisTic philosophyA. Objectivismemphasizes the objective and realindependence of ideas.B. Subjectivismemphasizes the subjective mental stateof human mind.C. Organicemphasizes the holistic state of mind.D. Personalismrejects the impersonal description ofinfinite mind and emphasizes the individualphenomena of the personal mind.
6. In education, idealism is against the philosophy ofprogressive education. Idealism has high regard forindividuality and freedom in education. The idealisticpattern of modern education is Platonicit can be said thatmodern education has given a different turn to educationalphilosophy. (Idealism has more to do with the ideas asmental state.) Education cannot be complete unless it is directedtoward mans eternal destiny.
7. The philosophy of idealism has general implicationin teaching and in learning.To the idealists, the purpose of education is to assistin the development of the spirit and self of the pupil. In education, it must emphasizes the developmentof the ff. areas of life:a. Intellectual activitiesb. Moral judgmentc. Aesthetic appreciationd. Self-realizatione. Individual freedomf. Individual responsibilityg. Self-discipline or control
8. The school curriculum must be based upon thespiritual nature of man. The school must be compose ofsubjects which liberate the mind of the learner. (thisconcept is based on the principle of creativity orindividual freedom) Education must preserve the subject-mattercontent which is essential.The content of the curriculum are arranged fromsimple to more complex, concrete to the moreabstract aspects of the subjects. This concepts isbased on the Law of Gradual Reaction Changeof Thorndike.
9. 2. The philosophy of realism--it is an attempt to portray life as it is. The realist believes that the world is made of real,substantial material entities. In other words, the realiststarts with a thing and end up with the idea. In short, thingis more important than idea. According to the philosophy, knowledge is derivedthrough sense experience, however, sense experiencealone cannot account for knowledge. To the realist, whatever is consistent with nature isdeemed good. The standard of this value is humanreason.
10. The philosophy of realism has implications toeducationit recognizes the right of every individual to aneducation based upon his nature.(limited only by hiscapacity to learn). This philosophy recognizes theimportance of individual differences in education. Pupilsdiffer in the level of their abilities to think in abstractionswhich call for different methods and techniques in teachingto meet them among individuals.
11. to the realists, education exists for the ff.reasons:A. To transmit cultureB. To develop thinking and reasoningC. To develop the ability to live a life of reasonD. To learn to live a life in a higher place To the realists, the purpose of education is to provideman with the essential knowledge he needs to survive innature.(this knowledge provides the individual with theskills necessary for a happy and abundant life.
12. The School curriculum is selected and organizedlogically and psychology.Logical arrangement means the subjects should bearranged from simple to the more complex.( thelaw of Gradual reaction change-Thorndike)Psychological arrangement means that the nature ofthe learner must be taken into consideration, suchas : ability, interests, and needs of the learner.
13. 3. The philosophy of humanism--it is a way of looking at our world which emphasizesthe importance of manhis nature and importance in theuniverse.Humanism teaches that all persons have dignity andworth. They objected to the simple nature of man. Humanism is a way of thought and life, which takes itscentral concern in the realization of the fullest humancareer. Humanism seeks to enrich and innoble the mansearthly life by liberating the latent potentialities ofhuman nature.
14. Many educators and philosophers believe that thegreatest challenge to humanism, and indeed a threat tothe safety of society comes from emphasis on scienceand technology.The modern humanistic ideal of education is thedevelopment of a well balanced person, who had:-- knowledge--knew how to live with his fellowmen--appreciated beauty--high standards of human judgment
15. Humanism is clearly related to international as anaim of education. Modern education should seek to promote the spiritof internationalism everywhere and be ever guided bythat spirit in its great taskProper internationalism means intellectual charitytoward universal progressive educational thought andpractice. It recognizes the interdependence amongnations necessitates the contribution of all nations tothe common task of advancing civilization.
16. In the applied scienceshuman relations still bearsthe primitive practices/ancient practices. In human relationwhere wisdom, tolerance, moralsense and social spirit are required. In the school of philosophy, humanism, the objectiveof teaching and learning is to discover the emotionalorder of subject-matter and the order of learning. According to this educational philosophy, learningstarts with the childs experience.(based on the law ofApperception of Herbart), that learning is easier if it startswith the past learning of the child which is related to whatis to be learned.
17. In other words, the learner must start with theconcrete and particular rather than the abstract anduniversal.
18. 4. Experimentalism & pragmatism--in general, the philosophy of pragmatism isgrouped under the general term of experimentalism.(experimentalism and pragmatism is closely related.) To both schools of philosophy, reality is determined byindividual experience. Dr. John Dewey (believer of pragmatism) mightproperly be called experimentalist, he insist that ideas mustalways be tested by experiment. he also believed that no knowledge is ever so certainthat it is not subject to new evidence which might resultto experimentation and experience.
19. he applied these basic concepts to nearly every aspectof philosophy and education. his notion that ideas are plans of action determine histheory of truth. (for him, if an idea does what it intends asa plan of action, it is true. If it fails, it is false.) The pragmatist does not believe that anything is self-evident. Pragmatism has been called particularly AmericanPhilosophy. Pragmatism is also considered as the logic that idea liesbehind scientific method.
20. According to the philosophy of experimentation andpragmatism, education must be problem centered. This problem must be felt by the learner and should becentered upon his abilities, needs and interests. The fact that man learns through experience, theexperimentalist and the pragmatist suggest an educationwhich stresses learning by doing and living. An individual learns through self activity orlearning by doing or reacting. They also suggest that teaching must stimulate thinkingand reasoning.