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Digital filmmaking. Session 1. Cinematic Storytelling. The Art of Engagement. Grab Attention! Hold Attention! Change Feelings! Change Understanding!. Cinematic Engagement. The Evolution of Cinematic Conventions. The Early Cinema. From Convention to Cinematic Language. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Text of Digital filmmaking

Digital Fillmmaking Workshop

Digital filmmaking

1Session 1Cinematic StorytellingThe Art of EngagementGrab Attention!

Hold Attention!

Change Feelings!

Change Understanding!Cinematic EngagementThe Evolution of Cinematic Conventions

The Early Cinema

From Convention to Cinematic Language

From Language To Cinematic Literacy

StorySo Whats a Story?Story ElementsThe Building Blocks of StorytellingCharacter




The Cinematic StoryStory: Dramatic Elements and Structure

Shots: Visual Elements and Structure

Sound: Audible Elements and Structure

Editing: Narrative Weaving of Shot And Sound

Story StructureThe Layout of Story ElementsActs


Story Events


The Most Important Story Element!Significance!Theories of DramaAristotles Poetics

Aristotles Poeticsb.384 B.C. in Macedonia, a student of Plato

Was tutor to Alexander the Great

Aristotles analysis of Tragedy is the basis of contemporary Western Drama

Aristotles Definition of Tragedy ..A tragedy is the imitation of an action, that is serious, having magnitude, complete in itself in appropriate and pleasurable languagein a dramatic rather than narrative form: with incidents arousing pity and fear, wherewith to accomplish a catharsis of these emotions

Aristotles Definition of Tragedy RealisticImportantMust be complete never unresolvedMust evoke feelings such as pleasure, pity and fearPreferably incident and action drivenShould cause a catharsis or emotional purging in the audience

Aristotles Elements of TragedyCharacter PlotThemeDictionSongSpectacleA Dramatic Catharsis or Cleansing!Aristotles Three UnitiesUnity of ActionSingle Incident

Unity of SpaceOne Place

Unity of TimeOne time

Organizing The Story

Organizing Story ElementsActs


Story Events and Dramatic Beats

Act StructureAll drama must have:

A Beginning

A Middle

An End

Act Structure Contd.Beginning : Act I The Exposition

Introduce character, time placeSets up relationshipsAct I ends with an event that disrupts the stability of the protagonists worldAct Structure Contd.The Middle: Act 2The Struggle

The protagonist is prevented from accomplishing or fulfilling their goals, desires and objectivesEnds with a ClimaxAct Structure Contd.The End: Act 3Resolution

After the climax, the lives of the characters begin to resolve either happily or tragically in a new stable realityThe SceneA dramatic action or interaction in one place at one time!Scenic interactions or incidents must themselves have a beginning, middle and endA Sequence extends the idea of a scene by having the dramatic action in more than one place and perhaps more than one time!

Story EventsScenes are made up incidents, actions and particularly interactions

Whatever happens to the characters

Significant Story Events are BeatsThe Pulse of Drama: The BeatMoments of significance in a scene

Beats are moments of changing consciousness/understanding in the audience and the characters.

Dramatic Beats- Changes in the audiences understanding of the story

Performance or Acting Beats- Changes in the characters understanding of the situation

Think of the moment a point is won during a tennis match

Very significant beats mark the end of a Scene or an ActSample Screenplay

Theories of Drama Contd.Freytags Triangle 5 Acts StructureExpositionRising ActionClimaxFalling ActionDenouement

28Session 2: Visual StorytellingThe Shot

The FrameAspect Ratio4:3/1.33:1 SDV Red16:9/1.78:1 HD Green2.39:1 Cinema Blue

30Shot NamesLong Shot (LS)Medium Shot (MS)Close Shot/Up (CS or CU)2-shot Over-the-shoulder (OTS)PanTiltTrackDollyZoomHi AngleLo AngleNormal

31Visual Elements & Structure Frame & Shot

Long Shot (LS)

Extreme Long Shot (ELS)Establishing Shot

Medium or Mid-Shot (MS)

Close Up or Close Shot (CU OR CS)

Extreme Close Up (ECU)

Subject Size Long Shot & MLS Mid Shot & MCU Close Shot & ECU

38More Shot Names: 2-SHOT

Over-the-shoulder Shot (OTS)

Audience EffectThe Objective Camera Audience Effect

The Subjective Camera Audience EffectLS. 2-Shot - Objective POV

MS-OTS Woman Objective POV

MS-OTS Man Objective POV

CU Woman Subject POV

CU Man Subjective POV

MLS 2-shot Objective POV

The Classic Hollywood Scene

A Scene Sample

LS/MS/CUClassic Hollywood Scene Exposition

Long Shot - BeginningMid-shot - MiddleClose-up- End

ContinuityClassic Hollywood Cinema TechniqueEstablishes Spatial Orientation Maintains consistency shot by shotPreserves the emotional empathy and involvement of the viewerPreserving the viewers suspension of disbeliefAnything that breaks Continuity is badContinuity Example180 Degree Rule

Scene Sample

Continuity: Eyeline Match

Continuity: Eyeline Match Cont.

Summary: Building Your Film StoryScenes built dramatically by beatsLocate Beats by placing shotsChoose the right shots to show the beatConstruct the scene with combinations of shots (LS/MS/CU) and BeatsScenes built into Sequences if neededSequences into Acts (Freytags Triangle)Acts assembled into a full story or filmThe Art of Engagement RevisitedThe Orchestration of Cinematic Elements to Engage your audience, hold their attention and then change them

In this presentation we have talked about some Cinematic elements, the cinematic grammar, the narrative and visual building blocks of audio visual engagement. There are others, namelySound & Editing


Camera PerspectiveTelephoto LensWide Angle LensNormal Lens59Wide Angle vs.Telephoto Image

Wide AngleTelephoto60Camera Staging & Filming TechniqueMaster/Coverage Shooting

Overlapping Action Shooting

61Screen DirectionHelps Maintain Spatial and Visual Continuity:Subject to Subject AxisCamera to Subject AxisAxis of ActionContinuity of Action Between FramesFrame Entry Frame Exit

62Subject to Subject Axis

180 Degree Rule63Camera to Subject Axis

64Axis of Action

65CompositionRule of Thirds

66COMPOSTION CONTD.Diagonal Lines/Depth

67How to Shoot A Scene Fiction SummaryBreaking down the Screenplay StoryboardingMarking the ScreenplayDeriving the Shot listThe Floor PlanSetting Up Shots:The Master ShotThe Overlapping MasterCoverage ShootingNumbering shotsUsing the SlatePreparing the Camera Report68How to Shoot A Scene: DocumentaryCameraA Roll and B RollLighting3 Point Lighting For InterviewsNatural LightingSoundMicrophonesInterviewing



The Quantity of Light ContrastExposureGain

The Quality of LightColor TemperatureWhite Balance

70Directionality: 3-point Lighting

713-point LightingKey Light

723-point LightingFill Light

733-point LightingBack Light

743-point Lighting

75Lighting Shooting Without LightsAvoid bright backgroundsChange locations

Outdoor ShootingAvoid mid-day shootingUse Sun as key Use Sun as Back withreflector as Key


77Interviewing TipsDont read questions while they speakDont ask a question that provokes a single word answerIf you need to, ask them to summarize their own answersKeep mental notes about good sound bitesAsk one question at a timeLISTEN!

78Shooting TipsStay steady and simpleUse a tripod whenever possibleGet in closeCompose like a Still PhotographerDont zoomKeep the background darker than the subject if possibleShoot pre-roll and post-roll

79Shooting Tips Contd.Let subjects walk in and out of frameThink about editing the shots while shootingTime your shots- dont roll for everWhen you pan or tilt have a beginning and an endDocumenting vs. Documentary: Be clearSlate your shots if you canThe audience will tolerate bad pictures not bad sound

80End of Session 2