Diri, Kel, Dan Identitas Sosial

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  • 8/9/2019 Diri, Kel, Dan Identitas Sosial

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    Diri, Kelompok, dan Identitas dalam

    Sosial

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    Siapakah Saya?

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    Konsep Diri...

    Sebuah konsep yang sangat penting

    dalam psikologi sosial

    Mempengaruhi perilaku seseorang,

    dan.

    Pembentukannya dipengaruhi oleh

    orang lain dalam proses interaksi sosial

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    Konsep Diri:

    Identitas diri seseorang yang

    merupakan sebuah skema yangberisi kumpulan belief dan

    perasaan mengenai diri sendiri.

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    Komponen Konsep Diri

    interpersonal attributes

    ascribed characteristics

    interest & activities

    existential aspects

    self determination

    internalized beliefs self-awareness

    social differentiation

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    Identitas Sosial

    Definisi seseorang mengenai siapa ia;

    di dalamnya termasuk atribusi personal

    (self concept) yang sesuai dengan

    keanggotaannya dalam berbagai

    kelompok.

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    Self Reference Effect

    Suatu proses kognisi dimana informasi

    yang berkaitan dengan diri diproses

    lebih cepat dibanding informasi jenis

    lainnya.

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    Possible self

    Representasi mental yang berisi

    pemahaman mengenai gambaran diri

    yang diinginkan pada masa yang akan

    datang.

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    Self Esteem

    Suatu evaluasi diri yang dibuat oleh

    setiap individu

    Suatu sikap mengenai diri sendiri dalam

    dimensi positif-negatif

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    Self Focusing

    Tingkah laku untuk sejauh mana

    mengarahkan perhatian ke dalam diri

    atau ke lingkungan luar diri

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    Self Monitoring

    Pengaturan tingkah laku individu

    berdasarkan pada situasi eksternal dan

    reaksi orang lain (high selfmonitoring)

    atau berdasar pada faktor internal

    seperti beliefs, sikap dan nilai (lowself

    monitoring)

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    Self Efficacy

    Evaluasi seseorang mengenai

    kemampuan atau kompetensinya dalam

    menyelesaikan tugas, mencapai tujuan,atau mengatasi masalah.

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    Self Efficacy dan Prestasi

    Prestasi dalam bidang akademik

    maupun dalam bidang fisik meningkat

    seiring dengan tingginya self efficacyyang dimiliki individu.

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    Self Efficacy dan Prestasi

    Gould & Weiss (1981): individu yang

    tinggi dalam self efficacy pada bidang

    atletik dapat melakukan latihan lebihlama daripada yang memiliki self

    efficacy rendah.

    Reasoning: tubuh menghasilkanendogenous opioids-natural painkiller.

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    Courneya & McAuley, 1993:

    Self efficacy dalam bidang kemampuan

    fisik juga menyebabkan individu mampu

    mempersepsi kesuksesan dalamlatihannya serta memiliki personal

    control terhadap tingkah lakunya.

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    Sex versus Gender

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    Sex vs Gender

    Sex: mengacu pada perbedaan anatomi

    dan fisiologi dari laki-laki dan

    perempuan yang berdasar padamasalah genetika.

    Gender: digunakan untuk menjelaskan

    tingkah laku yang berasosiasi denganjenis kelamin yang diperoleh dari

    harapan budaya atau kombinasi dari

    faktor budaya & biologi

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    Gender Identity

    Jenis kelamin (laki-laki atau

    perempuan) yang diidentifikasi

    seseorang sebagai identitas dirinya,biasanya, walau tidak selalu, berkaitan

    dengan jenis kelamin biologisnya.

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    Bem Sex-Role Inventory

    Suatu pengukuran psikologis untuk

    melihat sejauh mana deskripsi diri

    seseorang dikarakteristikkan olehmaskulinitas tradisional, feminitas

    tradisional, gabungan keduanya

    (androgyny), atau tidak keduanya(undifferentiated).

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    Androgyny

    Kecenderungan untuk memiliki

    karakteristik baik maskulin maupun

    feminin secara tradisional

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    GROUP AND INDIVIDUAL :

    THE COSEQUENCES OF BELONGINGGROUPS :

    A collection of persons who are perceived to be bonded together in a

    coherent unit to some degree.

    Perceived ENTATIVITY : The extent to which a group is being

    perceived as being coherent entity (Campbell, 1958).

    Is important because it determined What Makes a group is (really) a

    Group.

    Exp: People line at a bank (score entativity = 2.40)

    People who live in the same neighborhood (4.78)

    Sport Team (8,27)

    This rating is influenced by: to the degree to which group members

    interacted with one another

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    Type groups usually identified by

    their members

    Intimacy group (family, relatives)

    Task oriented group (committee, workgroup)

    Weak social relationship orAssociations

    (RT/RW, Kelompok mancing, dsb).

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    How Groups Function: Roles,

    Status, Norms, Cohesiveness How precisely do groups affect their members ? through mechanism of : Group Roles, Status,Norms & Cohesiveness.

    ROLES: Sets of behaviors that individualsoccupying specific positions within a group areexpected to perform.

    STATUS : Position or rank within a group.

    NORMS :R

    ules within a group indicating how itsmembers should or should not behaves.

    COHESIVENESS: All forces (factors) that causegroups members to remain in that groups.

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    HOWGROUPS AFFECT INDIVIDUAL

    PERFORMANCE:

    FromSOCIAL FACILITATIONtoSOCIAL LOAFING

    Social facilitation: Effects upon

    performance resulting from the

    presence of others.

    Drive theory of social facilitation:

    ATheory suggesting that the mere

    presence of others is arousing andincreases the tendency to perform

    dominant responses.

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    Performance is

    enhanced

    Performance is

    enhanced

    If dominant respon-

    ses are correct in

    The present situation

    If dominant respon-

    ses are incorrect in

    The present situation

    Enhanced tendency toperform dominant

    responses

    Presence of others

    (either as an audience or as co

    actors

    HeightenedArousal

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    From Drive to Attentional focus: How does

    the presence of others influence task

    performance ?

    Evaluation Apprehension: Concern over being

    evaluated by others. Such concern can increase

    arousal and so contribute to social facilitation Distraction-conflict theory: A theory

    suggesting that social facilitation stems from the

    conflict produced when individuals attempt,

    simultaneously, to pay attention to other personsand to the task being performed.

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    Social Loafing: Letting Others Do

    the Work When Part of a Group Additive Task: Task for which the group product is the

    sum or combination of the efforts of individual members.

    Social Loafing: Reduction in motivation and effort whenindividuals work collectively in a group compared towhen the work individually or as independent coactors

    Collective effort Model:A

    n explanation of social loafingsuggesting that perceived links between individuals effortand their outcomes are weaker when they work togetherwith others in a group. This, in turn, produces tendenciestoward social loafing.

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    Cooperation & Competition

    (Conflict)

    Cooperation: Behavior in which groups

    work together to attain shared goals

    Conflict : A process in which individuals

    or groups perceive that others have takenor will soon take actions incompatible with

    their own interest

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    Social Dilemmas:

    Situation on which each person can

    increase his or her individuals gains by

    acting in one way, but if all (or most)

    persons do the same thing, the outcomesexperienced by all are reduced

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    Factors influencing cooperations;

    Reciprocity, Personal Orientations &

    Communication Reciprocity :

    A basic rule of social life suggesting that individuals tendto treat others as these persons have treated them. r

    ecipr

    ocal altr

    uism. Personal orientation : orientation of person toward

    situation: cooperative, individualistic or competitiveorientation ?

    Communication; Individuals can use communication to

    discuss the situation, try to seek best alternative solutionthrough communication.

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    The Discontinuity Effect :Why Groups are

    more competitive than Individuals

    There is a tendecy that gorup arecompetitive than individuals, because:

    1) People tend to distrust other groups morethan other persons. 2) Easy to convincepeople that it is appropriate if a groupswas selfish than individuals 3) in

    Individuals setting the are easilyidentifiable, than if they are in group(anonimity)

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    Conflict: Its Nature, Causes and

    Effects

    Conflict

    Opposing interest

    Between the

    two sides

    Belief by each side that otherwill or has already taken

    Actions contrary to their

    interest

    Recogniton of these

    opposing interest

    Actions that interfere

    With others sides

    interest

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    MajorCauses ofConflict:

    Faulty attribution : errors consering the

    causes behind others behavior

    Faulty communication with anger

    Bias ofIdeology:

    our won gorup are right the other are

    wrong.

    Personality traits or characteristic: Type

    A : very competitive

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    Bargaining (negotiation):

    A process in which opposing side

    exchange offers, counteroffers, and

    concession, either directly or through

    representative

    Superordinate Goals: Create common

    goals, Goals that are both sides to a

    conflict seek and that tie teir intersettogether rather than drive them apart.

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    Culture & Conflict :

    Focus on relation or Outcomes ?:

    Research finding indicate that indiviodualstend to focus more on relational factors in

    conflicts within their own cultural or ethnic

    group, but more on outcomes in conflict that

    occurs accros cultural or ethnic boundaries.

    These finding have important implication for

    efforts to resolve social conflicts.

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    Perceived Fairness in Groups

    Distributive justice (equity):

    refers to individuals judgement about wether they are receivinga fair share of available reawards a share proportionate to theircontributions to the groups ( or to any social relationship)

    Procedural Justice :

    The fairness of the procedures used to distribute availablereawards among group members.

    Interactional (interpersonal) justice:

    The extent to which persons who distribute reawards explain orjustify their decisions and show considerateness and courtesy tothose who receive the rawards.

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    Conflict is LowCouples focus little attention

    On perceived unfairness

    Conflict is High

    Couples focus more attention

    On perceived unfairness

    Conflict is

    Intensified

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    Decission Making in Group

    Decission making:

    Processes involved in combing andintegrating available information in order tochoose one of several possible courses ofaction,

    Social Decision Schemes:

    Rules relating the initial distribution of

    members views to final group decisions. Group Polarization:

    The tendency of agroup members, as aresults of group discussion, to shift toward

    more extreme positions than those theyinitiall held

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    Groupthink:

    The tendency of the members of highly cohesive

    groups to assume that their decisions cant be

    wrong, that all members must support the

    groups decision strongly, and that informationcontrary to it should be ignored.

    Devils advocate technique:

    A technique for improving the quality of group

    decision in which one group member is assignedthe task of disagreeing with and criticizing

    whatever plan or decision is under consideration

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    Authentic dissent:

    A technique for improving the quality ofgroup decisions in which one or more

    group members actively disgree with the

    groups initial preference without beingassigned this role.