Disaster Relief and Humanitarian Action Dr. Paul Forage Indian River College

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  • Disaster Relief and Humanitarian Action Dr. Paul Forage Indian River College
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  • Outline Introduction Introduction History of Humanitarian Action History of Humanitarian Action Complex Emergencies Complex Emergencies Summary and Conclusion Summary and Conclusion
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  • 2: History of Humanitarian Action
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  • History of Humanitarian Action Origins of humanitarian action - motivations? Organized efforts of 11th/14th centuries Templars (1118) Catholic military orders Knights of Malta (1309) St. Francis de Paul US aid: French (Haiti) 1793 (Florida) Caracas Earthquake (1812) Irish Famine - Greeks and Ottomans 2.1. Historical Roots
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  • History of Humanitarian Action Henri Dunant - businessman from Geneva Henri Dunant - businessman from Geneva Witness to battlefield slaughter at Solferino Witness to battlefield slaughter at Solferino Fight between French and Italians Fight between French and Italians Left 40,000 wounded - untended Left 40,000 wounded - untended Dunants Idea: Dunants Idea: Impose a neutral spaceImpose a neutral space Provide impartial aid to all woundedProvide impartial aid to all wounded Independent of national objectivesIndependent of national objectives Importance of Publicity - Souvenirs de SolferinoImportance of Publicity - Souvenirs de Solferino Shocked European sensibilitiesShocked European sensibilities Political and Civil MobilizationPolitical and Civil Mobilization 2.2. Henri Dunant
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  • History of Humanitarian Action 2.3. Henri Dunant 1863
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  • History of Humanitarian Action Dunant led effort to mobilize political and civil world Dunant led effort to mobilize political and civil world Organized first Red Cross Committee Organized first Red Cross Committee Recognition of 20 European countries Recognition of 20 European countries First Geneva Convention of 1864 First Geneva Convention of 1864 The Amelioration of the Wounded in Time of War The Amelioration of the Wounded in Time of War Goals: Goals: Voluntary participationVoluntary participation Technical capacities and expertiseTechnical capacities and expertise Assist victims of conflict > natural disastersAssist victims of conflict > natural disasters 2.4. Red Cross Movement
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  • History of Humanitarian Action Validation of first international conventionsValidation of first international conventions Universalized Humanitarian movementUniversalized Humanitarian movement Protection of woundedProtection of wounded Banning some types of weaponsBanning some types of weapons Creation of International Humanitarian LawCreation of International Humanitarian Law Creation of new tools and techniques:Creation of new tools and techniques: Agency for locating and repatriating prisoners Agency for locating and repatriating prisoners Procedures for jail visits Procedures for jail visits Mobile surgical techniques Mobile surgical techniques Public Health campaigns Public Health campaigns 2.5. The First World War
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  • History of Humanitarian Action First Governmental Organizations - NANSEN Fridtjof Nansen (1861-1930) 1921 WWI DPs - 1922 NPP Fridtjof Nansen (1861-1930) 1921 WWI DPs - 1922 NPP Role of the League of Nations Role of the League of Nations Precursor to UNHCR - care of 400,000 refugees Precursor to UNHCR - care of 400,000 refugees Provided legal status for stateless persons Provided legal status for stateless persons 2.6. The World Wars and Revolutions www.fni.no
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  • History of Humanitarian Action First Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) Save the Children - Childrens Rights Movement Save the Children - Childrens Rights Movement Eglantyne Jebb and Dorothy Buxton English sister activists Eglantyne Jebb and Dorothy Buxton English sister activists Post-war blockade of Germany and Austria Hang the Kaiser Post-war blockade of Germany and Austria Hang the Kaiser Deprivation and starvation of civilian population Deprivation and starvation of civilian population Malnutrition, TB, and rickets afflict women and children Malnutrition, TB, and rickets afflict women and children 1919 - Fight the Famine Council - The Childrens Charter 1919 - Fight the Famine Council - The Childrens Charter Successful fund-raising rapidly became permanent org. Successful fund-raising rapidly became permanent org. 2.6. The World Wars and Revolutions
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  • History of Humanitarian Action First Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) 1932 John Voris NYC group Appalachian relief 1932 John Voris NYC group Appalachian relief Birth of American NGOs - many religious Birth of American NGOs - many religious World VisionWorld Vision International Rescue CommitteeInternational Rescue Committee Catholic Relief ServicesCatholic Relief Services Lutheran Worldwide FederationLutheran Worldwide Federation The rise of non-state actorsThe rise of non-state actors 2.7. The World Wars and Revolutions
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  • History of Humanitarian Action 1969 - revolt against the father 1969 - revolt against the father Group of French doctors led by Bernard Kouchner Group of French doctors led by Bernard Kouchner Biafra civil war fought in Nigeria Biafra civil war fought in Nigeria Civilian population beset by severe famine Civilian population beset by severe famine Angered by Red Cross inaction and neutrality Angered by Red Cross inaction and neutrality 2.8. The Without Borders Movement
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  • History of Humanitarian Action Architects Without Borders Architects Without Borders Clowns Without Borders Clowns Without Borders Engineers Without Borders Engineers Without Borders Lawyers Without Borders Lawyers Without Borders Mental Health Workers Without Borders Mental Health Workers Without Borders Nursing Students Without Borders (nswb.org) Nursing Students Without Borders (nswb.org) Reporters Without Borders Reporters Without Borders Teachers Without Borders Teachers Without Borders Technology Without Borders Technology Without Borders 2.8. The Without Borders Movement
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  • Complex Emergencies Characteristics of complex emergencies; Characteristics of complex emergencies; The main challenges for humanitarian practitioners in emergencies; The main challenges for humanitarian practitioners in emergencies; The concept of protection in the context of complex emergencies. The concept of protection in the context of complex emergencies. Is there such thing as a simple emergency? Is there such thing as a simple emergency? Intro to Complex Emergencies
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  • Complex Emergencies 1. Emergencies are normally based on civil conflicts. 2. Typical to complex emergencies is the lack of authority and security. 3. Because of lack of authority, flagrant violations of human rights and massive displacement are the result. 4. Disruption of infra-structure and economic system is likely to occur. CEs in the 1990s Four Characteristics
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  • Complex Emergencies Civil conflicts. Civil conflicts. Deterioration of authority and security. Deterioration of authority and security. Mass population movement Mass population movement Disruption economic system Disruption economic system Decline in food security Decline in food security Fifth Characteristic (CDHAM 2002)
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  • Complex Emergencies Increasingly conflicts are of an internal nature, exacerbated by uneven social and economic development, religious identities, and lack of democratic space. Increasingly conflicts are of an internal nature, exacerbated by uneven social and economic development, religious identities, and lack of democratic space. Privatization of war and relief, private actors, including individuals, rather than states. Also hard to distinguish between political and criminal violence. Privatization of war and relief, private actors, including individuals, rather than states. Also hard to distinguish between political and criminal violence. Importance of Internal Conflicts
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  • Complex Emergencies Authorities, where they exist, do not have effective control. Authorities, where they exist, do not have effective control. Working with non-state entities and other actors who have traditionally not been partners. Working with non-state entities and other actors who have traditionally not been partners. Knowing which power can exercise some sort of control in order to know who to deal with. Knowing which power can exercise some sort of control in order to know who to deal with. Continuity of Government
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  • Complex Emergencies Erosion of traditional values. Erosion of traditional values. Humanitarian space is being denied, e.g. denial of access. Humanitarian space is being denied, e.g. denial of access. Women and children are not only victims of warfare, but even targets. Women and children are not only victims of warfare, but even targets. Large numbers of displaced. Large numbers of displaced. More than 80% of the victims women and children. More than 80% of the victims women and children. Human Rights
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  • Complex Emergencies A wide variety of social, economic and political factors behind the emergencies. A wide variety of social, economic and political factors behind the emergencies. Instability disruptive for building infra-structural support. Instability disruptive for building infra-structural support. Lack of economic systems. Lack of economic systems. Infrastructure
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