Disasters & SAFETY

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Occured accidents and prevention

Text of Disasters & SAFETY

BHOPAL, FLIXBOROUGH, SEVESO, PHILIPPINES

Plant: Nypro Chemical Plant Location: Flixborough, Licolnshire, England Owner: Nypro (UK) Ltd Date and Time: June 1, 1974; 16:53 Death: 28 Injuries: 36

In 1967, Fisons in collaboration with Dutch State Mines (DSM) formed Nypro (UK) a chemical plant positioned at Flixborough, Licolnshire, England. The purpose of the plant was to produce caprolactam or 6-amino-caproic acid, a chemical used as a precursor in producing nylon.

Chemical process of oxidizing cyclohexane posed a great hazard.

Explosion with warfare like magnitude and dimensions, equivalent to 15 45 tons of TNT, decimated the area within a 6 mile radius.

Replacement of a damaged reactor with a 20 bypass pipe, without qualified engineering staff to oversee design and replacement. A rise in pressure caused the bypass pipe to twist and rupture causing a vapor cloud that was assumed to be ignited by a nearby furnace.

If one was to follow the replacement of the reactor with a bypass pipe, a qualified engineering staff with knowledge in design and safety is needed to decrease the risk of the pipe from rupturing.

During the explosion, if debris are falling from the ceiling, hide below a sturdy table or desk until they stop. Leave the building as quickly as possible, while paying attention to weakened floors and stairways.

Plant: Union Carbide India, Ltd. Location: Bhopal, India Date established: 1969 Owner: 51% Union Carbide Corporation 49% Indian Government

Pesticide: Carbaryl = CH3NCO + 1-naphthol + catalyst 1979: CH3NCO plant added to produce from phosgene and methylamine

December 2- 3, 1984 40 metric tons methyl isocyanate gas released into the atmosphere Dead: 25,000 Suffering until today: 100,000++

(cancer to birth defects)

CH3NCO + H2O 1,3-dimethyl urea + 1,3,5-trimethyl biuret + CO2 + heat

CH3NCO boils at 102F Unoperational equipments Groundwater pollution

Have safety masks ready at all times Reducing the amount of CH3NCO in production Constant inspection and maintenance Early action to environmental concerns

Plant: ICMESA (IndustrieChimicheMedaSocietaAzionari a) chemical company Location: Seveso, Italy Date: July 10, 1976

ICMESA was a small company, until 1965 Givaudan, a Swiss company took interest in it. ICMESA is a chemical plant manufacturing pesticides and herbicides.

The chemical tetrachlorodibenzoparadioxin was being produced from 1,2,4,5tetrachlorobenzene

The explosion released a dense vapor cloud containing tetrachlorodibenzopa radioxin (TCDD) was released from the reactor used for the production of trichlorophenol.

A reaction producing trichlorophenol was left unfinished and uncooled as the last shift for the week-end. The chemicals heated up spontaneously and blew safety valves in the reactor. Heat and pressure built up steadily in the absence of a water shield and dioxin formed.

Be equipped with absorbers, sensors, alarms and other basic equipment. Be alert and re-check readings from time to time Workers should be well-informed of the possible consequences, and the properties of their working chemicals so they will work with more caution.

Evacuate the area and Contact emergency agency immediately Listen to radios or television for instructions

Factory: Arctic Mop Yarn Factory Location: Valenzuela, Philippines Date: February 22, 2011

A worker was crushed to death by the carding machine with which he was working on. The carding machine is a machine that cleans the cotton fiber before it is turned into thread.

While the worker was feeding cotton into the carding machine, the hem of his shirt got caught in the machine due to improper safety precautions.

Complete enclosure of the moving parts of the prime mover transmission by means of barrier guards, with restricted access allowed through sliding or hinged gates which are locked or interlocked. Secure fencing of all dangerous parts to prevent access while they are in motion.

Immediate shut off of the machinery Remove clothing caught in the machine Call for ambulance

http://speakindia.wordpress.com/2010/06/21/bhopal-gas-tragedydisturbing-facts/ http://www.stephanebouillet.com/en/project/bhopalxxv/informations-bhopal-disaster http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1142333/ http://newton.dep.anl.gov/askasci/chem99/chem99589.htm http://www.aristatek.com/newsletter/NOV09/NOV09ts.pdf http://gulfnews.com/news/world/india/fact-file-bhopal-gas-disaster1.638025 http://www.bhopal.org/what-happened/ http://www.enn.com/pollution/article/41406 http://www.bhopal.org/

http://suite101.com/article/flixborough-disaster-nypro-chemicalfactory-explosion-of-1974-a262512#ixzz27jPlsYJH http://www.sozogaku.com/fkd/en/cfen/CB1058048.html http://www.hse.gov.uk/comah/sragtech/caseflixboroug74.htm http://www.acusafe.com/Incidents/Flixborough1974/incidentflixborough1974.html http://www.aria.developpementdurable.gouv.fr/ressources/5611_flixborough_eb_pl_ang.pdf http://www.ico.edu/policies/Environment%20of%20Care/Fire%20or% 20Explosion%20Response.pdf

http://www.ico.edu/policies/Environment%20of%20Care/Fire%20or% 20Explosion%20Response.pdf http://www.hse.gov.uk/comah/sragtech/caseseveso76.htm http://ec.europa.eu/environment/seveso/index.htm http://www.davidcwilson.com/Seveso.pdf http://www.mepa.org.mt/topics-seveso-background http://varenya.hubpages.com/hub/Seveso-man-made-disaster# http://www.osh.dol.govt.nz/order/catalogue/archive/cardingmachi nes.pdf http://www.philstar.com/Article.aspx?articleId=660293&publicationS ubCategoryId=65

1. What was the content of the vapor cloud that was released in Seveso? a. tetrachlorodibenzoparadioxin b. Tetrachlorodibenzometadioxin c. trichlorodibenzoparadioxin d. Trichlorodibenzometadioxin

2. When did the Seveso accident happen? a. July 10, 1976 b. June 1, 1974 c. June 10, 1976 d. July 1, 1974

3. Seveso is in the country of ______ . a. France b. Italy c. Russia d. England

4. Caprolactam is a precursor to producing what? a. Gum b. Nylon c. Pastel d. Paste

5. What company owns the chemical plant in Flixborough England? a. Nutrichem b. Chemlab c. NitroChem d. Nypro (UK)

Ng Chua. Ngo. Tomas. 2012