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Internet and Higher Education 13 (2010) 170175
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Internet and Higactivities for today's college students Jones, 2002.While in generations past, a class research assignment required a visit
to the library, today's students can, anddo, conductmuchof the necessaryresearchonline, fromthe comfort of their ownhome in anenvironment inwhich they are at ease and familiar. Whether choosing to access theuniversity library's online database, or more likely, Googling key wordstoconduct anonline searchvia theWeb(Jones, Johnson-Yale,Millermaier,& Prez, 2008), research ndings support the suggestion that today'scollege students are increasingly dependent on theWeb for their research
perception of credibility does not imply evaluation of actual credibility,but in fact the opposite, an acceptance of the information availablethrough the source as credible, therefore eliminating a perceived needto evaluate the information. The magnitude of information, in text,audio, images and graphics, available online, combined with a lack ofoversight and regulation, and these low information literacy skills,creates an environment that could be likened to shark infestedworldwidewaters for distance college students. Universities are obligedto prepare their students to navigate these waters successfully, toneeds (Helms-Park, Radia, & Stapleton, 2007; KWith 73% of college students indicating they u
Tel.: +1 509 335 4027 (ofce); fax: +1 509 335 48E-mail address: email@example.com.
1096-7516/$ see front matter 2010 Elsevier Inc. Aldoi:10.1016/j.iheduc.2010.03.001ime. Social networking,, watching You Tube andhe more popular online
literacy skills for distance students. Reliance on a particular source ofinformation predicts greater perceived credibility of the informationavailable through the source (Hong, 2006; Johnson & Kaye, 2000). Yetemailing, online shopping, listening to musicsurng or browsing, the net are some of t1. Introduction
The Internet and Web 2.0 are chaeducation in the 21st century. Every dasit down at their computers, open thlog in and attend class. Whether eprograms, blended classes, or both omore students than ever are learning ian environment where today's studenchoosing to spend much of their the face of a universitysands of college studentsferred Internet browser,d in exclusively onlinend on-campus courses,line environment. This isto be comfortable, even
the on-campus library (Jones, 2002), research nds this populationlacking the critical thinking skills necessary to evaluate the relevance,currency, reliability, completeness and accuracy of information accessed(Kimsey & Cameron, 2005; O'Hanlon, 2002; Neely, 2002;Wang & Artero,2005). In other words, today's students do not possess the informationliteracy skills necessary for success in the 21st century.
For students attending the university virtually without access tothe physical library, the Internet becomes the primary researchinformation source, making more vital the possession of informationimsey & Cameron, 2005).se the Internet more than
graduate individprepare them tothe future (ALA,
The purposeincrease the likereliability, compwords, how capractice of inform
l rights reserved.Distance students and online research: Prmedia literacy
Rebecca Van de Vord Washington State University, United States
a b s t r a c ta r t i c l e i n f o
Article history:Accepted 1 March 2010
Keywords:Information literacyMedia literacyInformation seekingCollege studentsElearningDistance educationCritical thinking
Today's college students, presearch needs. At the samactual credibility of onlineaccess the online library datheir research quests, makinonline survey designed to emeasure of information literelationship between theseinstructional designers migtoday's graduates to succesmoting information literacy through
cularly distance students, are increasingly dependent on the Web for theire they lack the critical thinking skills required to successfully evaluate thermation, a critical aspect of information literacy. Furthermore, rather thanase, distance students are more likely to employ generic search engines inore critical the need for information literacy. The current study employed anore the relationships between critical evaluation of online information, as ay, and components of media literacy. Results suggest a signicant, positiveracies. These ndings suggest variety in the types of strategies instructors andmploy towards the development of information literacy skills required forly negotiate the 21st century information society.
2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
her Educationuals who are information literate, in order to bestbe successful and productive employees and citizens in2000; Maughan, 2006).of the current study is to investigate factors thatlihood of students evaluating the relevance, currency,leteness and accuracy of online information. In othern educators best promote the development andation literacy for distance students?
171R. Van de Vord / Internet and Higher Education 13 (2010) 1701751.1. Information literacy
According to the American Library Association (ALA), To beinformation literate, a personmust be able to recognizewhen informationis needed and have the ability to locate, evaluate, and use effectively theneeded information (ALA, 1989). Information literacy is not a newconcept, related specically to online information. Rather it has deep rootsin library science (Rockman, 2004; Roth, 1999), where librarians havelong been concerned with teaching library instruction (Jacobson &Mark,2000; Wang & Artero, 2005). With these roots, information literacytraining programs traditionally focus on teaching the skills required toutilize library resources, (Kimsey & Cameron, 2005; Neely, 2002; Secker,Bden, &Price, 2007) andother scholarly databases, including those online.Skills encompassed in these training programs include; teaching studentsto use the online catalog and electronic databases, differentiating betweenlibrary databases, accessing the library system using a Telnet connection,interpreting bibliographic records and citations, and choosing anappropriate database for a topic (Jacobson & Mark, 2000). Scholarssuggest however, thatwith the explosion of information available and themagnitude of the issues, information literacy is no longer solely a libraryissue (Rockman, 2004; Roth, 1999). Further, information literacy shouldmore broadly encompass the ability to critically analyze and skepticallyreect on media text (Brown, 2006; Feuerstein, 1999; Hobbs & Frost,2003).
In addition, research suggests that fully online students are lesslikely than campus students to use online library resources (Dempsey,Fisher, Wright & Anderton, 2008), suggesting greater dependence ongeneric search engines and the vast, uncontrolled Web, for comple-tion of research assignments. Therefore, understanding how to bestpromote information literacy requires an understanding of onlineinformation seeking in general.
1.2. Information seeking
Online information seekers indicate as their priority the ability toaccess information in the quickest, easiest, and most convenient way(Crespo, 2004; Napoli, 2001; Wathen & Burkell, 2002; Rice, 2001). Case(2002) suggests that individuals' rating of easy accessibility as moreimportant than quality of information can be explained by the Principleof Least Effort. According to Case, many people rely on informationresources, including mass media, rather than formal sources such as auniversity library, as a means of increasing the efciency of their efforts(greater quantity accessed more quickly). This is supported by researchndings showing that online information seekers often begin a searchwith a generic search engine such as Google or Yahoo and are likely toview only the links on the rst page or two of results (Jones et al., 2008;Rice, 2001). Rice, McCreadie, and Change (2001) suggest that, consistentwith satiscing theory, people lean toward a course of action that is goodenough, or satisfactory. In other words, the theory suggests thatindividuals are most likely to nd information from the easiest, mostconvenient source, compromising quality for efciency and it seems likelythat the quality of information accessed is largely determined by thequality of the information search.
A university library database is preltered by expert librariansselecting valid and reliable sources of peer reviewed information.Online information has no lter beyond that which the informationseeker employs. Several characteristics of the Web, while promotingopen information exchange, also exacerbate concerns regarding thecredibility of information found online. These characteristics include;lack of peer review and regulation, low cost of publishing, anonymityof authorship, and the fast pace at which information is added andchanged (Cline & Haynes, 2001; Mittman & Cain, 2001). All of thesecontribute to substantial quantities of unreliable, biased, incomplete,misleading and inaccurate online information (Cline & Haynes, 2001;Gagliardi & Jadad, 2002; Rice, 2001; Mittman & Cain, 2001; Napoli,
2001). Hence, the critical need for information literacy.1.3. Information credibility assessments
Once information is located, individuals assess perceived credibility ofwhat they have found and do indicate they are reticent to use informationthey do not nd credible (Fogg, 2003; Tseng & Fogg, 1999). There is adifference, however, between perceived and actual credibility. Perceivedcredibility of information is a subjective concept based on an individual'sinterpretation of various source, media and information elements, anddiffers from the actual credibility of the information (Crespo, 2004; Fogg&Tseng, 1999; Warnick, 2004). Research conducted in experimentalsettings predicts that actual credibility perceptions are affected by sourceexpertise and knowledge of topic (Eastin, 2001; Hong, 2006). In the realworld, however, individuals are seeking informationwhen theyperceiveagapbetweenwhat theyknowandwhat theyneed toknow(Wilson, 1997,1999). The consequencebeing that verifying informationquality critically,in realworld settings, is likelyhinderedby lackof knowledge related to thespecic topic of the information search (Freeman&Spyridakis, 2003).Onewould expect this would be the case when students are researchinginformation for a course on a topic about which they are in the process oflearning and not already knowledgeable.
Once on aWeb site, in place ofmore stringent evaluative criteria, usersare likely to employ heuristics, based largely onWeb design, to weed outthose sites they do not intend tomake further use of (Crespo, 2004; Fogg,2003; Huntington et al., 2004; Sillence, Briggs, Harris, & Fishwick, 2007;Wathen & Burkell, 2002;Warnick, 2004). Users indicate they often assessthe perceived credibility of information on a Web site based on surfacefactors,wholly unrelated to content, like organization of information, easeof navigation and professionalism of site design (Crespo, 2004; Fogg,2003; Freeman & Spyridakis, 2003). The ndings that respondentsgenerally report being satised with the information found online(Cline & Haynes, 2001) do not indicate actual credibility, but more likelyrelevance, usability and consistency with what the user already knows(Freeman & Spyridakis, 2003; Wathen & Burkell, 2002). Informationliteracy, however, requires the application of more stringent criticalthinking skills in evaluating the actual credibility of online information.
1.4. Predictors of critical information evaluation
As noted previously in this article, such critical evaluative criteria,in terms of information literacy, would include verication of therelevance, currency, reliability, completeness and accuracy of theinformation as well as identication of the author and author'scredentials (Kimsey & Cameron, 2005; Neely, 2002; Wang & Artero,2005) consistent with the denition of information literacy. Under-standing information seekers who employ such criteria can help toilluminate the factors most likely to predict and promote informationliteracy.
In studies related to online information seeking, Crespo (2004)found that 37% of his subjects rejected information due to lack of anidentiable source and 47% because theWeb site was too commercial.This is consistent with a Flanagin and Metzger (2007) nding that, inan online context, credibility assessments are lower when explicitpersuasive intent is evident. Research ndings suggest that verica-tion of information, such as that noted in these studies, is positivelyassociated with skepticism in that skeptical users are more likely toverify online information (Flanagin & Metzger, 2007). Huntingtonet al. (2004) found that individuals indicating less believability ofonline health information visit more sites during an informationsearch, comparing information found between the sites visited, thando those indicating greater trust in online health information. Further,ndings of contradictions between sources increased skepticismtoward the information among study subjects. It would seem then,that teaching one to be skeptical of information sources mightincrease information literacy. Cultivating skepticism toward mediamessages, including online information, is at the heart of many media
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172 R. Van de Vord / Internet and Higher Education 13 (2010) 1701751.5. Media literacy
Media literacy, designed to teach andmotivate individuals to criticallyanalyze media messages, decrease perceptions of realism and increasemedia skepticism (Austin & Johnson, 1997; Austin, Chen, Pinkleton, &Quintero Johnson, 2006; Brown, 2006; Irving & Berel, 2001; Posavac,Posavac, &Wiegel, 2001) might, therefore, positively impact informationliteracy. According to Hobbs and Frost (2003), media literacy educationgenerally involves student's analysis of their ownmediause, identicationof the author's purpose and point of view, knowledge of productiontechniques, evaluation of media representation of the world, andunderstanding of the economic structure of the media industry.
Hobbs and Frost (2003) conducted a study embedding criticalmedia literacy instruction into a yearlong high school English course.The students who received the instruction were better able, than thecontrol group, to identify the purpose, target audience, point of view,and construction techniques used in media messages. The students inthe media literacy program displayed better critical thinking skills intheir ability to identify omitted information and were more likely tobe aware of the blurring of information, entertainment, andeconomics present in nonction media messages, thus suggestingthat media literacy can be an effective tool in enhancing informationliteracy.
Fostering information literacy by teaching individuals to thinkcritically about th...