DNA Deoxyribonucleic Acid What are we going to learn? What do you want to know?

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    25-Dec-2015

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> DNA Deoxyribonucleic Acid </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> What are we going to learn? What do you want to know? </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> Make observations and inferences about this picture. </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> A. Function Information Storage Blueprint for the production of the entire body Structural and functional components Information is carried in a coded message </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> B. Chemical composition 1. Organic molecule What does this mean? It contains carbon (and hydrogen) 2. Components - Three A) 5 carbon sugar (deoxyribose) B) phosphate group C) Nitrogenous (nitrogen) base Either a single or a double ring Four different types: Adenine, Guanine, Thymine, Cytosine </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> OBSERVATIONOBSERVATION INFERENCEINFERENCE Purine Pyrimadine Purine </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> 3. All three of these components are bonded together to form a nucleotide. How many different nucleotides are possible? 4 </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> Where do the bonds form? What are the bonds called? </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> C. Genetic Code The order of the nitrogen bases on the DNA strand acts as a code specifying the order of amino acids in a protein. Analogy We have 26 letters. </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> Analogy Using the letters C, A, T, B, R, E You can make many words What are some words? </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> AtRat BratRate BatRace BetTab BearTare BeatTear BraceTar CareTea Cat Cab Care Cater Ear </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> DNA is a code A,T,G &amp; C all code for amino acids that will eventually make up ____? Proteins The order that these nitrogen bases are in will dictate which amino acids are used to make the protein What might happen if a nitrogen base is added? Mutation EX) BEAR REAR OR) CAR CARE </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> D. Watson and Crick What did these scientists do? 1. DNA is composed of long, twisted strands of nucleotides bonded together to form a ladder. Uprights = sugars + phosphates Rungs = nitrogen bases (ATGC) </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> 2. Because of molecular shape adenine must always bond to thymine. Guanine must always bond to _____. Cytosine This is referred to as complimentary base pairing. </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> 3. The entire structure is twisted to form a double helix. 4. Since bases are complimentary, the order of the bases on one strand of DNA dictates the order of bases on the opposite strand of DNA. </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> Slide 24 </li> <li> Ex. 1: A-T-T-C-A-G-C-G-A-T-G-G-A 2: T-A-A-G-T-C-G-C-T-A-C-C-T </li> <li> Slide 25 </li> <li> Slide 26 </li> <li> How long is DNA? If you unraveled all your chromosomes from all of your cells and laid out the DNA end to end, the strands would stretch from the Earth to the Moon about 6,000 times. </li> <li> Slide 27 </li> <li> Neat DNA facts! You probably know that no two people have exactly the same DNA, but did you know that everyone's DNA is 99.9% identical? Did you know that most of your DNA apparently does not code for any protein that we know of? Did you know that humans don't have that many more genes than an earthworm? Did you know that we are so similar to yeast, in some of our DNA, that human DNA can be substituted for the equivalent yeast gene--and it works just as well? </li> <li> Slide 28 </li> <li> Calculating DNA length for each person, it would stretch across the diameter of the solar system. 6 000 000 000 000 base pairs 0.6 nm x 10 13 cell = 3.6x10 16 meters If the information contained in the DNA could be written down, it would fill a 1000 volume encyclopedia </li> <li> Slide 29 </li> </ul>

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