Do You Want to Improve Your Public Speaking and Presentation Skills

  • Published on

  • View

  • Download

Embed Size (px)


<ul><li><p>7/25/2019 Do You Want to Improve Your Public Speaking and Presentation Skills</p><p> 1/11</p><p>For other uses, see Childhood (disambiguation).</p><p>Ralph Hedley, The Tournament, 1898</p><p>Childhoodis the age span ranging from birth toadolescence.1!"ccording to #iaget$s theory of cogniti%e</p><p>de%elopment, childhood consists of t&amp;o stages'preoperational stage and concrete operational stage. n</p><p>de%elopmental psychology, childhood is di%ided up into the</p><p>de%elopmental stages of toddlerhood(learning to &amp;al),early childhood(play age), middle childhood (school age), and adolescence (puberty through</p><p>post*puberty). +arious childhood factors could affect a person$s attitude formation.1!</p><p>he concept of childhood emerged during the 1-th and 18th centuries, particularly through the</p><p>educational theories of the philosopherohn /oceand the gro&amp;th of boos for and about</p><p>children.</p><p>0!</p><p>#re%ious to this point, children &amp;ere often seen as incomplete %ersions of adults.</p><p>Contents</p><p> 1 "ge ranges of childhood</p><p> 0 e%elopmental stages of childhood</p><p>o 0.1 2arly childhood</p><p>o 0.0 3iddle childhood</p><p>o 0.4 "dolescence</p><p> 4 History</p><p> 5 6eographies of childhood</p><p>o 5.1 3odern concepts of childhood</p><p>o 5.0 7ature deficit disorder</p><p> Healthy childhoods</p><p>o .1 Role of parents</p><p>o .0 Children$s health</p><p>o .4 Child protection</p>'s_theory_of_cognitive_development's_theory_of_cognitive_development's_theory_of_cognitive_development's_theory_of_cognitive_development</li><li><p>7/25/2019 Do You Want to Improve Your Public Speaking and Presentation Skills</p><p> 2/11</p><p>o .5 #lay</p><p>o . treet culture</p><p> : Children$s rights</p><p> - Research in social sciences</p><p> 8 ee also</p><p> 9 Footnotes</p><p> 1; Further reading</p><p> 11 2</p></li><li><p>7/25/2019 Do You Want to Improve Your Public Speaking and Presentation Skills</p><p> 3/11</p><p>Children in 3adagascar</p><p>eenage boys in ndia</p><p>2arly childhood follo&amp;s the infancystage and begins &amp;ith toddlerhood&amp;hen the childbeginsspeaing or taing steps independently. &gt;hile toddlerhood ends around age three &amp;hen the child</p><p>becomes less dependent on parental assistance for basic needs, early childhood continues</p><p>appro</p></li><li><p>7/25/2019 Do You Want to Improve Your Public Speaking and Presentation Skills</p><p> 4/11</p><p>and by function, and e%en &amp;ithin a single nation*state or culture there may be different ages at</p><p>&amp;hich an indi%idual is considered to be (chronologically and the legally) mature enough to be</p><p>entrusted by society &amp;ith certain tass.</p><p>History</p><p>3ain article' History of childhood</p><p>Playing Children, byong ynastyChinese artistu Hanchen, c. 11; ".</p><p>t has been argued that childhood is not a natural phenomenon but a creation of society. #hilippe</p><p>"ri@s, an important French medie%alistand historian, suggested this in his boo Centuries ofChildhood. his theme &amp;as then taen up by Cunningham, in his boo theInvention of</p><p>Childhood(0;;:), &amp;hich loos at the historical aspects of childhood from the3iddle "gesto</p><p>&amp;hat he refers to as the #ost &gt;ar #eriod of the 19;s, 19:;s and 19-;s.</p><p>"ri@s published a study in 19:1 of paintings, gra%estones, furniture, and school records. He</p><p>found that before the 1-th*century, children &amp;ere represented as mini*adults. ince then,historians ha%e increasingly researched childhood in past times. Aefore "ri@s, 6eorge Aoashad</p><p>published The Cult of Childhood. uring the Renaissance,artistic depictions of childrenincreased dramatically in 2urope. his did not impact the social attitude to children much,</p><p>ho&amp;e%er (see child labour).</p><p>uring the 1:;;s, the concept of childhood began to emerge in 2urope. "dults sa&amp; children as</p><p>separate beings, innocent and in need of protection and training by the adults around them. he</p></li><li><p>7/25/2019 Do You Want to Improve Your Public Speaking and Presentation Skills</p><p> 5/11</p><p>2nglish philosopher ohn /oce&amp;as particularly influential in defining this ne&amp; attitude to&amp;ards</p><p>children, especially &amp;ith regard to his theory of the tabula rasa, &amp;hich considered the mind at</p><p>birth to be a Bblan slateB. " corollary of this doctrine &amp;as that the mind of the child &amp;as bornblan, and that it &amp;as the duty of the parents to imbue the child &amp;ith correct notions. uring the</p><p>early period of capitalism, the rise of a large, commercial middle class, mainly in the#rotestant</p><p>countries of the utch Republicand 2ngland, brought about a ne&amp; family ideology centredaround the upbringing of children. #uritanismstressed the importance of indi%idual sal%ation and</p><p>concern for the spiritual &amp;elfare of children.4!</p><p>The Age of Innocencec.1-88. Reynolds emphasiDed the natural grace of children in his</p><p>paintings</p><p>he modern notion of childhood &amp;ith its o&amp;n autonomy and goals began to emerge during the</p><p>2nlightenmentand the Romantic periodthat follo&amp;ed it. ean acEues Rousseauformulated the</p><p>romantic attitude to&amp;ards children in his famous 1-:0 no%elEmile: or, On Education. Auilding</p><p>on the ideas of ohn /oceand other 1-th*century thiners, Rousseau described childhood as a</p><p>brief period of sanctuary before people encounter the perils and hardships of adulthood.</p><p>5!</p><p>iroshua Reynolds$ eith the onset ofindustrialisationin 2ngland, a gro&amp;ing di%ergence bet&amp;een high*minded</p><p>romantic ideals of childhood and the reality of the gro&amp;ing magnitude of child e</p></li><li><p>7/25/2019 Do You Want to Improve Your Public Speaking and Presentation Skills</p><p> 6/11</p><p>he modern attitude to children emerged by the late 19th century the +ictorian middle and upper</p><p>classes emphasiDed the role of the family and the sanctity of the child, G an attitude that has</p><p>remained dominant in &gt;estern societies e%er since.1;!he genre of children$s literaturetoo off,&amp;ith a proliferation of humorous, child*oriented boos attuned to the child$s imagination. /e&amp;is</p><p>Carroll$s fantasyAlice's Adventures in Wonderland,published in 18: in 2ngland, &amp;as a</p><p>landmar in the genre regarded as the first B2nglish masterpiece &amp;ritten for childrenB, itspublication opened the BFirst 6olden "geB of children$s literature.</p><p>he latter half of the century also sa&amp; the introduction of compulsory state schooling of children</p><p>across 2urope, &amp;hich decisi%ely remo%ed children from the &amp;orplace into schools. he maret</p><p>economy of the 19th century enabled the concept of childhood as a time of fun of happiness.Factory*made dolls and doll houses delighted the girls and organiDed sports and acti%ities &amp;ere</p><p>played by the boys.11!he Aoy couts&amp;as founded by ir Robert Aaden*#o&amp;ellin 19;8,10!</p><p>&amp;hich pro%ided young boys &amp;ith outdoor acti%ities aiming at de%eloping character, citiDenship,and personal fitness Eualities.14!</p><p>Geographies of childhood</p><p>he geographies of childhood in%ol%es ho&amp; (adult) society percei%es the %ery idea of childhood</p><p>and the many &amp;ays the attitudes and beha%iors of adults affects children$s li%es. his includesideas about the surrounding en%ironment of children and its related implications. his is similar</p><p>in some respects to children$s geographies&amp;hich e</p></li><li><p>7/25/2019 Do You Want to Improve Your Public Speaking and Presentation Skills</p><p> 7/11</p><p>he concept of childhood appears to e%ol%e and change shape as lifestyles change and adult</p><p>e</p></li><li><p>7/25/2019 Do You Want to Improve Your Public Speaking and Presentation Skills</p><p> 8/11</p><p>#eru%ian girls studying</p><p>Role of parents</p><p>3ain article' #arenting</p><p>Children's health</p><p>Further information' Childhood obesity, Childhood immuniDationsand /ist of childhooddiseases</p><p>Children$s health includes the physical, mental and social &amp;ell*being of children. 3aintaining</p><p>children$s health implies offering them healthy foods, insuring they get enough sleep and</p><p>e</p></li><li><p>7/25/2019 Do You Want to Improve Your Public Speaking and Presentation Skills</p><p> 9/11</p><p>Hararigirls in 2thiopia.</p><p>#lay is essential to the cogniti%e, physical, social, and emotional &amp;ell*being of children.</p><p>04!</p><p>toffers children opportunities for physical (running, =umping, climbing, etc.), intellectual (social</p><p>sills, community norms, ethics and general no&amp;ledge) and emotional de%elopment (empathy,compassion, and friendships). nstructured play encourages creati%ity and imagination. #laying</p><p>and interacting &amp;ith other children, as &amp;ell as some adults, pro%ides opportunities for</p><p>friendships, social interactions, conflicts and resolutions.</p><p>t is through play that children at a %ery early age engage and interact in the &amp;orld around them.#lay allo&amp;s children to create and e</p></li><li><p>7/25/2019 Do You Want to Improve Your Public Speaking and Presentation Skills</p><p> 10/11</p><p>ha%e less access to boos and computers &amp;hich effects their de%elopment as they do not ha%e</p><p>access to resources that &amp;ould enhance their de%elopment.0:!</p><p>treet culture</p><p>3ain articles' Children$s street cultureand Children$s street games</p><p>Children in front of a mo%ie theatre, oronto, 190;s.</p><p>Children$s street culture refers to the cumulati%e culturecreated by young childrenand is</p><p>sometimes referred to as theirsecret %orld. t is most common in children bet&amp;een the ages ofse%en and t&amp;el%e. t is strongest in urban &amp;oring classindustrial districts&amp;here children are</p><p>traditionally free to play out in the streets for long periods &amp;ithout super%ision. t is in%ented and</p><p>largely sustained by children themsel%es &amp;ith little adult interference.</p><p>?oung children$s street culture usually taes place on Euiet bacstreets and pa%ements, and alongroutes that %enture out into localpars,playgrounds, scrub and &amp;asteland, and to local shops. t</p><p>often imposes imaginati%e status on certain sections of the urban realm (local buildings, erbs,</p><p>street ob=ects, etc.). Children designate specific areas that ser%e as informal meeting and</p><p>rela</p></li><li><p>7/25/2019 Do You Want to Improve Your Public Speaking and Presentation Skills</p><p> 11/11</p><p>n recent years there has been a rapid gro&amp;th of interest in the sociological study of adulthood.</p><p>Reaching on a large body of contemporary sociological and anthropologicalresearch, people</p><p>ha%e de%eloped ey lins bet&amp;een the study of childhood andsocial theory,e</p></li></ul>


View more >