This decade opened the century with the first flight by the Wright brothers and Einstein's Theory of Relativity.
This decade was unfortunately dominated by the first world war. It also saw other huge changes during the Russian Revolution.
Beginning of Prohibition.
The Great Depression hit the world hard in the 1930s.
The Vietnam War was still a major event in the beginning of the 1970s.
The Cold War ends.
Nelson Mandela is released from prison.
Internet becomes popular.
3. Musical background
The 1960s, 1970s and 1980s were very important years.
1960s:African jazz was the most important music during this years. Some important musicians were Dollar Brand and Caiphas Semenya.
1970s: African jazz was the most important music too.Dollar Brand became more important during these years.
1980s:The 1980s saw the appearance of Afro-jazz bands such as Sakhile and Bayete
4. Literary background.
Around the year 1900 there were a lot of important books as :
The Wonderful Wizard of Oz
Mary Elizabeth Braddon - The Infidel
Robert Grant - Unleavened Bread
Jerome K. Jerome- Three Men on the Bummel
Emilio Salgari - The Tigers of Mompracem
Henryk Sienkiewicz - The Teutonic KnightsPolish
The Will of an Eccentric
The Castaways of the Flag
Mary Augusta Ward -Eleanor
5. Artistic background.
July 19 - The Paris underground opens, with entrances designed by Hector Guimard in 1899.
Antoni Gaud begins work on the Parc Gell, which he works on for the next fourteen years.
The Gare d'Orsay, now the famous Muse d'Orsay, is built in Paris by Victor Laloux.
The Joseph Camberlain Clock Tower in Birmingham, England is completed.
The OXO Tower in London is completed.
The Royer Printing House, designed by Lucien Weissenburger, is completed.
Dohodno Zdanie, Rousse, Bulgaria
6. Dr. Barnard. 7. Presentation
Christiaan Neethling Barnard was a southafrican surgeon. He was born in Beaufort West(1922) and he died in Cyprus(2001). He was the first doctor that realized the first transplant of human heart.
He was the son of a missionary of the Dutch Reformed Church. His family was not very rich, but his parents could give their four children a good education. One of his four brothers, called Abraham, died due to a heart problem at the age of five. Due to this reason he wanted to be a Doctor to help people.
He was proposed for the 1968 Nobel Prize for medicine.
Barnard matriculated from the Beaufort West High School in 1940, and went to study medicine at the University of Cape Town Medical School, where he obtained his MB ChB in 1945.
Barnard was in an internship at the Groote Schuur Hospital in Cape Town. Then, he worked as a general practitioner in South Africa. Some years later he returned to Cape Town where he worked at the City Hospital and in the Department of Medicine at the Groote Schuur Hospital as a registrar. He receives the Master of Medicine in 1953 from the University of Cape Town. In the same year he obtained a doctorate in medicine from the same university for a dissertation entitled "The treatment of tuberculous meningitis".
After this, he received a two-year scholarship for postgraduate training in cardiothoracic surgery at the University of Minnesota. It was during this time that Barnard first became acquainted with Norman Shumway, who did much of the pioneering research leading to the first human heart transplant. In 1958 he received a Master of Science in Surgery for a thesis entitled, "The aortic valve - problems in the fabrication and testing of a prosthetic valve".
The 3 rdof December of the year 1967, Dr. Barnard had realized the first transplant of heart to a human being. The operation was assisted by his brother called Marius Barnard. The operation lasted nine hours and used a team of thirty doctors. The man who was operated was called Louis Washkansky,He was a man who was fifty six years oldthat suffered from diabetes and an incurable heart disease. The donor was Dnise Darvall, a twenty five year old girl.
When Washkansky woke up he said that he was feeling much better with the new heart, but eighteen days after he dies due to a pneumonia.
After Barnards operation, forty-nine consecutive heart transplants were performed in Cape Town between 1975 and 1984.
10. Public and personal life.
*After his first successful heart transplant Barnard became known as the"film star surgeon". On one hand he was loved by his patients throughout the world, but on the other hand, he was hated by many people who were jealous of his instant success. He was accused by many colleagues in the profession of "stealing" the idea and the opportunity to perform the first heart transplant.
*Barnard's first marriage was to Aletta Gertruida Louw, a nurse. Theyhad two children. In1969, Barnard and his wife divorced. Then, he married Barbara Zoellner when she was 19. With this girl he had two children .He divorced Zoellner in 1982. Barnard married for a third time in 1988 to Karin Setzkorn. They also had two children but this last marriage also endedin a divorce.
Barnard retired as Head of the Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery in Cape Town in 1983 after developing rheumatoid arthritis in his hands, which prevented him from operating. He then spent two years as the Scientist-In-Residence at the Oklahoma Transplantation Institute in the USA, and acted as consultant for other institutions.
Christiaan Barnard wrote two autobiographies. His first book,One Life , was published in 1969. His second autobiography,The Second Life , was published in 1993.
Apart from his autobiographies, Dr Barnard also wrote several books:
Your Healthy Heart
In The Night Season
The Best Medicine
Arthritis Handbook: How to Live With Arthritis
Good Life Good Death: A Doctor's Case for Euthanasia and Suicide