Text of Dr. Yaseen Hayajneh Radiology Services Yaseen Hayajneh RN, MPH, PhD
Dr. Yaseen Hayajneh Radiology Services Yaseen Hayajneh RN, MPH, PhD
Dr. Yaseen Hayajneh What is Radiology? Radiology is the study of images of the human body. A Radiologist is a physician who has become a specialist in Radiology - a medical doctor who has taken additional training in the interpretation of medical images. This training usually takes 5 -6 years after completing Medical School. Although Radiology began with the use of X-Rays and large flat sheets of photographic films, the modern Radiologist now has a variety of tools for "taking pictures" of living patients. Many of these newer tools create an image with a computer (CT - computed tomography) and some do not use any X-Rays, nor radiation of any kind - such as MR and Ultrasound.
Dr. Yaseen Hayajneh Plain radiographs (plain X-rays) Plain radiographs (plain X-rays) can be obtained using a variety of imaging methods, and they all require exposing the patient to X-Ray radiation. The image or picture is basically a shadow of the parts of the patient that absorb or block the X-Rays. The image can be collected on photosensitive film, on a digital imaging plate, or on a flouroscope. The image is a "photographic negative" of the object - the "shadows" are white regions (where the X-rays were blocked by the object). Plain radiographs ("plain films") are usually taken by a trained Radiologic Technologist. The resulting films are then interpreted by the Radiologist to make a diagnosis.
Dr. Yaseen Hayajneh COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY (CT or CAT Scans) A specialized X-ray imaging technique. It may be performed "plain" or after the injection of a "Contrast Agent". CT creates the image by using an array of individual small X-Ray sensors and a computer. By spinning the X-Ray source and the sensor/detectors around the patient, data is collected from multiple angles. A computer then processes this information to create an image on the video screen. These images are called "sections" or "cuts" because they appear to resemble cross-sections of the body. The patient is not actually "cut". Because it does use X-Rays to form the image, this computerized technique has some limitations that are similar to those for plain film radiographs.
Dr. Yaseen Hayajneh COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY (CT or CAT Scans)
Dr. Yaseen Hayajneh Fluoroscopy Fluoroscopy is a technique for obtaining "live" X-ray images of a living patient. The Radiologist uses a switch to control an X-Ray beam that is transmitted through the patient. An Image can then be watched "live" on a TV monitor. Fluoroscopy is often used to observe the digestive tract Fluoroscopy is also used during many diagnostic and therapeutic Radiologic procedures, to observe the action of instruments being used either to diagnose or to treat the patient.
Dr. Yaseen Hayajneh Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Magnetic Resonance Imaging does not use X-Rays (nor any other type of "ionizing" radiation). Instead, it is a technique that includes a large magnetic field and a computer to produce 3D images. The pictures look like "sections" or "cuts" - just like in CT.
Dr. Yaseen Hayajneh Ultrasound (US) Using high frequency sound waves to create an image of living tissue. The basic technique is similar to submarine ultrasound. A sound signal is sent out, and the reflected "echoes" are used to create the image. Ultrasound can create truly real-time "movies" of the heart beating, contraction of bowel loops, and can even show blood flowing. Using a special form of US called DOPPLER the speed and direction of flowing blood can be measured and illustrated in color pictures. All of this without harming the patient. This doppler technique allows Radiologists to detect blocked blood vessels in the neck, and elsewhere. One of the most common US procedures is the examination of the living fetus within the mother's womb (OBSTETRIC sonography). US images (like CT and MRI) are viewed as if they were "sections" of the body.
Dr. Yaseen Hayajneh Ultrasound (US) Doppler ultrasound or "echo" Doppler ultrasound unit
Dr. Yaseen Hayajneh MAMMOGRAM A specialized x-ray which shows up the breast tissue and can detect breast cancer at a very early stage. The image is produced by a low-dose X-ray of the breast. It is used as a screening test in women with no signs or symptoms of breast cancer or to evaluate a lump.
Dr. Yaseen Hayajneh Portable X-ray Certain radiologic procedures can be done at bed side, especially for patients who cant be moved to radiology department (orthopedic patients or patients on ventilators)
Dr. Yaseen Hayajneh PACS - Definition P icture A rchive C ommunication S ystem The Acquisition, Archival and Retrieval of Digital images over a Computer network, for Diagnosis and Review at dedicated workstations. A costly system that uses an image server to exchange X-rays, CT scans and other medical images over a network. Mini-PACS specialize in one type of image such as an ultra- sound.
Dr. Yaseen Hayajneh PACS - Benefits Principal Benefits Constant, reliable and online access Faster turn around times Enhanced image manipulation Greater accuracy in reporting Images are sorted Cost per exam has decreased