DRA and Running RecordsWhat are they?Why do we use them?How do we use them?
What are running records?A running record is a method of assessing reading. It can be done quickly and frequently.Through a running record, a teacher can obtain:Information about a students reading strategies.Information about a students self-monitoring.An accuracy rateAn error rateA self-correction rate
First, it allows the teacher to identify an appropriate reading level for each student in the classroom.Running Records are an important assessment tool:Second, it reveals how well a student is self-monitoring and/or self-correcting his reading.Finally, it identifies which reading strategies a student is using (or not using).
Running Records allow teachers toRun an assessment-driven program, Differentiate, andTarget the specific needs of each student.Running records can be used to:Document reading progress over timeHelp teachers decide what students need to learnMatch students with appropriate leveled books
Types of Running RecordsMiscue Analysis- a running record involving linguistics and long analytical review. Running Records- both teacher and student have a copy of text. Most texts are typically 100-200 words. Informal Reading Inventories-similar to running records. Often they include graded word lists ( to determine sight vocabulary) and graded passages story passages (for comprehension).
Why do we use them?Students working below their instructional levels will not learn as much because it is too easy.Students working above their instructional level will not benefit as much because it is too hard. When the text is too hard, comprehension is simply impossible. (Fountas & Pinnell, 1996, p.156)Students working at their instructional level will benefit the most because they are working at the cutting edge of their zone of learning.
How Do Running Records Help Us With Instructional Decisions?They allow a teacher to make data-based decisions for whole group and small group instruction :Identify particular difficulties that a student may be having.Assist in creating homogenous guided reading groups.Monitor students progress.Allow different students to move at different speeds- modified instruction.Provides assessment and evaluation data.
How Do We Use This Tool?As the student reads out loud, the teacher makes notes on their copy of the text. Every error is recorded and a standardized set of conventions are used to record miscues. Questions are usually asked at the end to gauge comprehension. It is suggested that a student read from several different levels of texts: an easy text (95-100% correct), an instructional text (90-94% correct), and a hard text (80-89% correct). These three samples can provide insights into a students' strengths (using easier texts) and weaknesses (using more difficult texts) (Clay, 1985).
Challenges in the ClassroomThe challenge in the classroom is to build time during the literacy block to do a running record. Students need to be trained to do other things to buy the teacher time.A larger challenge is finding resources that can be used at the intermediate level. Finding high-interest leveled texts for intermediate students is a challenge.Finally, there is a learning curve associated with using this assessment tool. Accuracy in catching errors will improve over time. Clay notes that "as your ear becomes tuned-in to reading behaviors and you gain control over the recording conventions, your records will become more and more reliable." (Clay 1993, p.24 as cited in Cohen & Wiener, 2003, p 127)
Ways to Fit in Running RecordsSneak in a few minutes during Reading Renaissance.Use students arrival time (8:00-8:30).Become a center during Workshop Time.Work with a partner. Team teach with a partner. While they teach, you test and then switch.
Identify the Appropriate Reading Level Running Record Informal Reading InventoryIve done the Running Record now what?
Reading level Word AccuracyWord Accuracy (Word List)ComprehensionIndependent level95% or more99%95%Instructional level90%-94%90%75%Frustration levelBelow 90%Below 90%Below 50%
Analyze the errorsLook at the types of errors made to determine which cueing system the reader is (not) using. Record the following letters beside each error or self-correction: M meaning (semantic cues), S syntax (grammar cues) or V visual (phonic cues).Meaning errors are when the student has substituted in another word that looks similar to the correct word and is grammatically correct, but doesnt make sense in the context of the text.Syntax errors are when the word substituted in makes sense and looks similar to the correct word, but doesnt sound right (grammatically incorrect).Visual errors are when the word substituted in makes sense (meaning) and is grammatically correct (syntax), but perhaps starts with a different letter.If you write M S V alongside each error or self-correction and circle the cues you think the child used, the uncircled letters will then show the cues neglected. (Clay, 1985, p21)
Coming Next WeekNow What?Power Point by Erika Parker 2010