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    ADDIS ABABA UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF GRADUATE STUDIES

    THE PROFESSIONAL ORIENTATION OF JOURNALISTS IN ETHIOPIA: SURVEY OF THEIR

    SELF - PERCEPTION

    BIRHANU OLANA DIRBABA

    JULY, 2006

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    THE PROFESSIONAL ORIENTATION OF JOURNALISTS IN ETHIOPIA: SURVEY OF THEIR

    SELF-PERCEPTION

    A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE SCHOOL OF GRADUATE

    STUDIES

    ADDIS ABABA UNIVERSITY

    IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR

    THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN JOURNALISM AND

    COMMUNICATIONS

    BY

    BIRHANU OLANA DIRBABA

    JULY, 2006

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    Acknowledgment

    This thesis project could not have been completed in this

    form without the encouragement and support of manypersons, including my advisors, family, friends andcolleagues.

    I especially thank Mr. Franz Kruger for his diligent follow upand support in showing the direction, and for his greaterinterest he has shown to advise my project.

    In spite of his administrative burden at the school I alsothank Prof. Abiyi Abraham Ford that his inspiration at theinitial stage of the study has pushed me a lot to tackle theproject.

    Most of all, I thank my wife Sr. Jalalti Yohannes and my littleBari Birhanu and all my family members in letting me do theproject with concentration.

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    Table of Contents

    Page

    AcknowledgmentsList of tables, figures and appendices

    Abstract

    ChapterOne ............................................................................................... 1

    1. Introduction ........................................................................................... 11.1. Background of the

    study.........................................................................................11.2. Statement of the

    problem........................................................................................41.3. Rationale of the

    study............................................................................................111.4. Research

    questions.................................................................................................12

    1.5. Objectives of thestudy...........................................................................................13

    1.6. Significance of the

    study........................................................................................141.7. Definitions of concepts...........................................................................................15

    Chapter Two................................................................................................ 172. Review of Related

    Literature............................................................... 172.1. Theoretical roots of communicator

    research.......................................................172.2. Professionalism.....................................................................................

    ...................182.3. Journalism as a

    profession......................................................................................242.4. The perceived role of

    journalism...........................................................................33

    2.4.1. Professional role perception of journalists....................................................35

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    2.4.1.1. Role and roleperception.....................................................................35

    2.4.1.2. Role orientation of journalists............................................................38

    2.5. Trends in journalism roleperceptions..................................................................42

    2.6. The context of professional journalism inEthiopia............................................462.6.1. Professional associations of journalists in

    Ethiopia......................................462.6.2. Professional associations of journalists in

    Ethiopia......................................492.6.3. Journalism education in

    Ethiopia....................................................................502.6.4. Constraints of professional journalism in

    Ethiopia......................................51

    Chapter Three.............................................................................................. 573. Research

    Methodology..........................................................................573.1. Population of the study and its

    setting.................................................................573.2. Sampling...............................................................................................

    .....................583.3. Data

    collection...........................................................................................................59

    3.3.1. Primarydata.......................................................................................................60

    3.3.2. Secondarydata...................................................................................................62

    3.4. Method of data processing andanalysis...............................................................62

    3.5. Scope of thestudy....................................................................................................65

    3.6. Limitations of thestudy...........................................................................................67

    ChapterFour..............................................................................................684. Data Presentation and

    Analysis.......................................................... 684.1. Quantitative

    data....................................................................................................68

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    4.1.1. Demographic profile of journalists...............................................................68

    4.1.2. Journalists educationalbackground............................................................70

    4.1.3. Belief, attitude, motivation andcommitment.............................................72

    4.1.3.1. Attitude toward journalismeducation...........................................724.1.3.2. Motivation..............................................................................

    .............744.1.3.3. Commitment and

    mobility...............................................................784.1.3.4. Licensing and

    accreditation..............................................................814.1.3.5. Perception of the role of mass

    media..............................................814.1.3.6. Ethics

    orientation...............................................................................874.1.3.7. Job

    aspects...........................................................................................894.1.3.8. Journalists image of their

    audience................................................924.2. Qualitative

    data......................................................................................................944.2.1. Views of informants on professional

    journalism........................................954.2.2. Attitude toward journalism

    education.........................................................974.2.3. Participation in professional

    associations...................................................994.2.4. Journalists

    motivation....................................................................................994.2.5. Journalists self-

    image....................................................................................1014.2.6. Accreditation and

    licensing..........................................................................102

    ChapterFive..............................................................................................1045. Discussion............................................................................

    ................ 1045.1. Background and characteristics of journalists.................................................104

    5.1.1. Gender............................................................................................................104

    5.1.2. Age andexperience......................................................................................105

    5.1.3. Type of mass medium andemployer........................................................106

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    5.2. Educational background and journalismeducation......................................107

    5.2.1. Qualification..................................................................................................107

    5.2.2. Journalismeducation...................................................................................108

    5.3. Career background andmotivation.................................................................1095.4. Professional

    association.....................................................................................1115.5. Accreditation and

    licensing...............................................................................1135.6. Professional

    values..............................................................................................1135.7. Professional role

    perception............................................